JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 33

Design of a fewer angle-ply definition in a laminate reduces the minimum gauge thickness, thus increasing the versatility of the laminate. The data set approach Another design practice commonly used in the industry is generating allowable data using notched specimens. Tests performed in this approach are both material and geometry dependent. This necessitates a significant number of tests to characterize the behaviour of notched specimens, thus resulting in a significant expenditure to set up the specimens and conduct the tests. Exacerbating this situation, data obtained from one set of specimens cannot be superimposed to those from another set of specimens. For example, data generated using an open-hole specimen under unidirectional tension and compression cannot be used to predict the behaviour of such specimens under biaxial loading. Figure 5 shows the ultimate failure envelopes for a smooth and a notched (open-hole) quasi-isotropic specimen generated using the quadratic failure criteria and finite element simulation. From these failure envelopes, it can be construed that the biaxial strength cannot be estimated by those obtained from uniaxial load tests. In addition to this, the safety factor value changes from one load condition to another. This raises a flag against a common practice in the industry of using uniaxial tension and compression data to estimate biaxial data and of using a knockdown factor to obtain data for one specimen from the test results for another specimen. It is evident from Figure 5(b) that if the safety factors from uniaxial tests, shown by anchor points for tension (OHT) and compression (OHC), are used for other loading conditions, the approach might be either over-conservative or underconservative. In fact, the data generated using notched specimens are specific to the particular loading condition, laminate definition and geometry of the specimen and thus are not exchangeable. Therefore, the best practice for characterizing composites would be to generate a data set from smooth specimens and then use numerical simulation coupled with the data set to obtain results for the notched specimens. This not only reduces the cost of material characterization but also eliminates the above-mentioned erroneous practices. This underlines the significance of simulation, which also provides a cost-effective and general approach. For example, if a panel with an oblong opening needs to be optimized for biaxial loading, the efficient route would be first to generate data from the smooth specimen of the material to be used. This would be followed by numerical simulations to obtain the optimal layup. The optimal design can then be validated by experiments. This approach circumvents the need for sacrificing numerous test specimens and test hours during the optimization phase, thus significantly reducing the expenditure. Hence, to maximize the benefit from the use of composites, the envelope has to be pushed beyond the paradigm of black aluminium, and the conservative design rules should be challenged. Some of the current design and data generation practices existing in the industry are expensive and indeterminate. This can be avoided by utilizing the numerical Fig. 2: 10% rule (for [π/3] laminates) reduces the number of layup combinations [1]. Fig. 3: The moduli of three-angle-ply laminates compared to that of aluminium (or black-aluminium, in the case of general CFRPs) [1]. Fig. 4: A three-angle-ply laminate can compete with a four-angle-ply laminate in terms of strength (shown here are the failure envelopes for FPF-first ply failure and LPF-last ply failure) [1]. No48 May 2009 / jec composites magazine 33

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009

Cover
INDEX
CONTENTS
NEWS WORLDWIDE
Companies - AGY expands into Asia Pacific
- Ranger uses expertise to gain foothold in China
- Swancor: two-digit growth and double the ambition
Agenda of events
Innovations - Diamond tool producer celebrates 50th anniversary
 - Eliminating dust from your work environment
 - Autoclaves from XS to XXL
BUSINESS
Market survey - Industrialization of the carboncomposite industry (2nd part)
Strategy - Growth strategies during turbulent times
Trends - A comprehensive view of software and services
Niche market: Luggage - Beautiful structural balance
FEATURE AERONAUTICS
Design - Pushing the envelope in composites design
Engineering - Reducing the complexity of composites engineering
Testing - Laboratory infusion test unit: for new materials testing and process validation
Simulation - An industrial solution to simulate post-buckling and damage
Application - Attainable solutions with composite materials
 - Benzoxazine resin sytems for future interior applications
 - Prototype A350 XWB composite wing spars
FEATURE DISTRIBUTION
Japan - Strongly committed to customer satisfaction
India - “Distribution in India is quite a complex and challenging proposition”
Iran - The History of Polyfiber Company
Australia - Lance Brown: a global market view
USERS’ PLATFORM
Composites in the world - Adaptive energy concept
 - Golf club head
 - Thermoplastic wind turbines in Antarctica
 - High-quality headphones
Successful partners - The A400M cargo door: faster, lighter and better value
Application - Mass-produced zero-emission vehicle
KNOW-HOW
Nanotubes - Carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix composite structures
Control - Process control through dielectric monitoring
Materials - Recent advancements in materials for liquid resin infusion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 3
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - INDEX
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - CONTENTS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 8
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Companies - AGY expands into Asia Pacific
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - - Ranger uses expertise to gain foothold in China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - - Swancor: two-digit growth and double the ambition
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Innovations - Diamond tool producer celebrates 50th anniversary
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - Eliminating dust from your work environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - Autoclaves from XS to XXL
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Market survey - Industrialization of the carboncomposite industry (2nd part)
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Strategy - Growth strategies during turbulent times
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Trends - A comprehensive view of software and services
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Niche market: Luggage - Beautiful structural balance
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - FEATURE AERONAUTICS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Design - Pushing the envelope in composites design
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Engineering - Reducing the complexity of composites engineering
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Testing - Laboratory infusion test unit: for new materials testing and process validation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Simulation - An industrial solution to simulate post-buckling and damage
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Application - Attainable solutions with composite materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - Benzoxazine resin sytems for future interior applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - Prototype A350 XWB composite wing spars
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - FEATURE DISTRIBUTION
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Japan - Strongly committed to customer satisfaction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - India - “Distribution in India is quite a complex and challenging proposition”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Iran - The History of Polyfiber Company
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Australia - Lance Brown: a global market view
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - USERS’ PLATFORM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - Golf club head
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - High-quality headphones
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Successful partners - The A400M cargo door: faster, lighter and better value
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Application - Mass-produced zero-emission vehicle
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - KNOW-HOW
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Nanotubes - Carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix composite structures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Control - Process control through dielectric monitoring
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 70
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 71
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Materials - Recent advancements in materials for liquid resin infusion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 73
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 74
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 75
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 76
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