JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 73

secondary resin component into the textile. Another potential benefit of the soluble-veil approach is the added functionality. This may include performance benefits such as added surface or fire smoke and toxicity (FST) protection. In the future design of integrated structures, this discrete interlaminar toughening element could be selectively placed where it is needed within a component. A major advantage of the soluble-veil approach to the PRIFORM technology platform lies in the fact that it no longer requires an intermediate dwell period within the cure cycle. The standard soluble fibre requires a dwell period for complete dissolution and diffusion (see Figure 1). This cycle reduction was possible thanks to the characteristics of the veil filaments. No premature dissolution was observed during the resin incorporation stage. As soon as curing had started, the dissolution mechanism was initiated and it was completed during ramp-up. There have been recent competitive approaches through the use of alternative polymer types or intermediate forms. These are often found to provide limited performance and do not typically offer the balance of toughness enhancement together with FST performance and environmental resistance. Figure 4 shows that the soluble veil NCF provides a comparable cross-section to that of standard NCF . Further development of this material has led to evaluating the impact-to-drape of the veil inclusion. By managing the stitching patterns used, it was observed that the veil presence had little effect on the drapability of the NCF . Fig. 4: Cross-section comparison of standard NCF (left) to soluble veil NCF (right). Fig. 2: Controlled dissolution of the soluble veil (post-injection). Unidirectional grades In addition to the veil multiaxial concept, a stitched unidirectional grade was also assessed. This product involved sandwiching carbon tows between glass filaments and a soluble veil, and holding them in place with polyester stitching. This configuration is illustrated in Figure 5. Veil interleaved stitched non-crimp fabrics The aerospace industry has been using stitched non-crimp fabrics for a long time [5]. Although the Airbus A380 aircraft has given NCFs their first commercial aircraft primary structural application [6], it can be argued that they have not been fully exploited in demanding structural applications. This may be due to their typical low performance with standard LRI systems. Here, poor damage tolerance and notch sensitivity is a design limitation and the presence of polyester stitching can initiate inservice matrix micro-cracking. The incorporation of non-woven intermediates in stitched multiaxial textiles is not a new concept, though the integration of an epoxy-soluble medium into these textiles is, especially when it offers primary structural prepreg performance. The typical inclusion of non-soluble intermediate layers offers a trade-off in thermal performance against limited toughness gains. The configuration of a veil-modified NCF is shown in Figure 3. Fig. 5: Stitched unidirectional veil textile construction and cross-section. With glass yarns present in the textile construction, additional non-contributing material is added to the composite. Evaluating the cross-sections in this configuration has shown that the crimp levels – from both stitching and the supporting glass filaments – will reduce the plane-laminate performance. The extent of this crimping is illustrated in Figure 5. The reduced mechanical performance in dry textile configurations is well known and understood in the composites industry. Little progress has been made in closing the gap on axial-performance levels between textile process technologies and those of prepreg tapes. Property reductions of 15-20% are commonly expected for 0° axial strength. Fig. 3: Construction example of veil interleafed NCF. No48 May 2009 / jec composites magazine 73

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009

Cover
INDEX
CONTENTS
NEWS WORLDWIDE
Companies - AGY expands into Asia Pacific
- Ranger uses expertise to gain foothold in China
- Swancor: two-digit growth and double the ambition
Agenda of events
Innovations - Diamond tool producer celebrates 50th anniversary
 - Eliminating dust from your work environment
 - Autoclaves from XS to XXL
BUSINESS
Market survey - Industrialization of the carboncomposite industry (2nd part)
Strategy - Growth strategies during turbulent times
Trends - A comprehensive view of software and services
Niche market: Luggage - Beautiful structural balance
FEATURE AERONAUTICS
Design - Pushing the envelope in composites design
Engineering - Reducing the complexity of composites engineering
Testing - Laboratory infusion test unit: for new materials testing and process validation
Simulation - An industrial solution to simulate post-buckling and damage
Application - Attainable solutions with composite materials
 - Benzoxazine resin sytems for future interior applications
 - Prototype A350 XWB composite wing spars
FEATURE DISTRIBUTION
Japan - Strongly committed to customer satisfaction
India - “Distribution in India is quite a complex and challenging proposition”
Iran - The History of Polyfiber Company
Australia - Lance Brown: a global market view
USERS’ PLATFORM
Composites in the world - Adaptive energy concept
 - Golf club head
 - Thermoplastic wind turbines in Antarctica
 - High-quality headphones
Successful partners - The A400M cargo door: faster, lighter and better value
Application - Mass-produced zero-emission vehicle
KNOW-HOW
Nanotubes - Carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix composite structures
Control - Process control through dielectric monitoring
Materials - Recent advancements in materials for liquid resin infusion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 3
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - INDEX
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - CONTENTS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 8
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Companies - AGY expands into Asia Pacific
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - - Ranger uses expertise to gain foothold in China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - - Swancor: two-digit growth and double the ambition
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Innovations - Diamond tool producer celebrates 50th anniversary
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - Eliminating dust from your work environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - Autoclaves from XS to XXL
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Market survey - Industrialization of the carboncomposite industry (2nd part)
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Strategy - Growth strategies during turbulent times
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Trends - A comprehensive view of software and services
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Niche market: Luggage - Beautiful structural balance
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - FEATURE AERONAUTICS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Design - Pushing the envelope in composites design
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Engineering - Reducing the complexity of composites engineering
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Testing - Laboratory infusion test unit: for new materials testing and process validation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Simulation - An industrial solution to simulate post-buckling and damage
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Application - Attainable solutions with composite materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - Benzoxazine resin sytems for future interior applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - Prototype A350 XWB composite wing spars
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - FEATURE DISTRIBUTION
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Japan - Strongly committed to customer satisfaction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - India - “Distribution in India is quite a complex and challenging proposition”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Iran - The History of Polyfiber Company
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Australia - Lance Brown: a global market view
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - USERS’ PLATFORM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - Golf club head
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 -  - High-quality headphones
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Successful partners - The A400M cargo door: faster, lighter and better value
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Application - Mass-produced zero-emission vehicle
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - KNOW-HOW
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Nanotubes - Carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix composite structures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Control - Process control through dielectric monitoring
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 70
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 71
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - Materials - Recent advancements in materials for liquid resin infusion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 73
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 74
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 75
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #48 - May 2009 - 76
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