JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 46

testing

Measurement principle
The scratch testing method is a highly reproducible quantitative technique that uses critical failure loads to compare the cohesive or adhesive properties of coatings or bulk materials. During the test, scratches are made on the sample using a sphero-conical stylus which is drawn at a constant speed across the sample, under a constant or, more commonly, progressive load with a fixed loading rate. The sphero-conical stylus is available with different radii (which describes the “sharpness” of the stylus). Common radii range from 20 to 200 μm for micro/macro scratch tests, and from 1 to 20 μm for nano-scratch tests. When performing a progressive load test, the critical load is defined as the smallest load at which a recognizable failure occurs. In the case of a constant load test, the critical load corresponds to the load at which a regular occurrence of such failure along the track is observed. In the case of bulk materials, the critical loads observed are cohesive failures, such as cracking, or plastic deformation of the material. In the case of coated samples, a lower load regime results in conformal or tensile cracking of the coating which still remains fully adherent (which usually defines the first critical load). In a higher load regime, further damage usually results from the coating detaching from the substrate by spalling, buckling or chipping.
Fig. 2: Nano Scratch Testing Principal

Tab 1: Nano Scratch Testing Capabilities

Test-specific parameters include: - Loading rate - Scratching speed - Indenter tip radius - Indenter material

Sample-specific parameters include: - Friction coefficient between surface and indenter - Internal stresses in the material for bulk materials - Material hardness and roughness for coating-substrate systems - Substrate hardness and roughness - Coating hardness and roughness - Coating thickness

- Microscopic observation is the most reliable method to detect surface damage. This technique makes the difference between cohesive failure within the coating and adhesive failure at the interface of the coating-substrate system. - Tangential (frictional) force recording makes it possible to study force fluctuations along the scratch and to correlate them to the failures observed under the microscope. Typically, a failure in the sample will result in a change (a step, or a change in slope) in friction coefficient. Frictional responses to failures are very specific to the coating-substrate system in study. - Acoustic emission (AE) can be used to detect the elastic waves generated by the formation and propagation of microcracks. The AE sensor is insensitive to the instrument’s mechanical vibration frequencies. This critical load determination method is mostly adequate for hard coatings that crack with more energy. - Depth sensing is another critical load evaluation method. A sudden change in the depth data can indicate a delimitation. Pre- and post-scratch depth data can also provide information on plastic vs elastic deformation during the test. 3D non-contact ima-ging such as the white light axial chromatism technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be useful to measure the exact depth of the scratch after the test. The following test parameters are used:
Tab 2: Nanoindenter Specifications

46

jec composites magazine / No64 April 2011

Load type Initial load Final load Loading rate Scratch length Scratching speed, dx/dt Indenter geometry Indenter material (tip) Indenter tip radius

Progressive 0.06 mN 120 mN 120 mN/min 2 mm 2.001 mm/min 90° cone Diamond 5 μm

Critical load determination

The scratch test provides highly reproducible quantitative data that can be used to compare the behaviour of various coatings. The critical loads depend on the mechanical strength (adhesion, cohesion) of a coating-substrate composite but also on several other parameters; some of these are directly related to the test itself, while others are related to the coating-substrate system. Several different critical load determination methods can be used:



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011

Cover
Edito
Point of view: fast expansion
Contents
Agenda of Events
COMPANY & BUSINESS
In Brief
Reinforcement - Red Composites: a real expertise in carbon fibre
Housing - Housetec: a young company with a background of 40 years’ experience
Asia - Hua Dong Fibreglass, an SME that exports worldwide
APPLICATIONS
Construction - Creative eye-catching design for a new Sheraton hotel
Marine - Multiplast builds the Groupama V070
Awards - ICERP-JEC Innovation Awards Programme 2011: eight companies rewarded
MARKET
Human capital - Latest appointments
Sports and Leisure - Rossignol Group: innovation and performance in winter skis applications
FEATURE WIND ENERGY
Reinforcement - WebCore Technologies: great ambitions in the wind industry
New rovings for wind turbine blade applications
Prepreg spar caps: a solution for today
Software - Industrial software for manufacturing large components such as wind blades
Leveraging an end-to-end solution for composite wind turbine blades
Laser placement - Manufacturing rotor blades with highest precision while reducing costs
Automation - A fully-automated manufacturing process for wind blades
Maintenance - An innovative, certified blade repair system
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Testing - Using nano-scratch testing to detec composite failure
Mould - Processing technology for the rapid production of advanced composites
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
Robot - Robotic fibre placement machine helps reduce energy consumption
Process - A new industrialized construction process for transport infrastructures
Fibre placement - Tape laying and fibre palcement: complementary solutions
NDT - What’s new in non-destructive testing labs?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Point of view: fast expansion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - In Brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Reinforcement - Red Composites: a real expertise in carbon fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Housing - Housetec: a young company with a background of 40 years’ experience
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Asia - Hua Dong Fibreglass, an SME that exports worldwide
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Construction - Creative eye-catching design for a new Sheraton hotel
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Marine - Multiplast builds the Groupama V070
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Awards - ICERP-JEC Innovation Awards Programme 2011: eight companies rewarded
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Human capital - Latest appointments
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Sports and Leisure - Rossignol Group: innovation and performance in winter skis applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Reinforcement - WebCore Technologies: great ambitions in the wind industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - New rovings for wind turbine blade applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Prepreg spar caps: a solution for today
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Software - Industrial software for manufacturing large components such as wind blades
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Leveraging an end-to-end solution for composite wind turbine blades
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Laser placement - Manufacturing rotor blades with highest precision while reducing costs
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Automation - A fully-automated manufacturing process for wind blades
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Maintenance - An innovative, certified blade repair system
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Testing - Using nano-scratch testing to detec composite failure
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Mould - Processing technology for the rapid production of advanced composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Robot - Robotic fibre placement machine helps reduce energy consumption
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Process - A new industrialized construction process for transport infrastructures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - Fibre placement - Tape laying and fibre palcement: complementary solutions
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - NDT - What’s new in non-destructive testing labs?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #64 - April 2011 - 68
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