JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 46

FEATURE natural fi bre
Th ree academic partners of the project - the
University of South Britt any, Cambridge
University and the French National Research
Institute for Agriculture, Food and
Environment (INRA e) - conducted several
studies jointly with Eco-Technilin and Howa-Tramico,
focusing more particularly on
the type of fi bre, fi bre length, fi bre orientation
in the veil, areal weight and consolidation
type. Th e combination of expert knowhow
and extensive research made it possible
to produce this low-environmental-impact
preform (Figure 1). Structural investigations
demonstrated Eco-Technilin's ability
to produce the preform with a range of fi bre
orientations according to the processing parameters.
Th us, these developments off er a
bio-based, locally-sourced and economically
and technically-viable alternative to the
glass fi bre headliners traditionally used by
the automotive industry, and to the currently
available plant fi bre reinforcement mats.
Investigating the fl ax fi bre-resin
interfacial properties
Th e quality of the bond between the fl ax
fi bres and the industry-standard methyl
diethanolamine (MDI) matrix was assessed
by microdroplet debonding tests.
As shown in Figure 2, the bond between
the fi bre and the resin within the composite
material appears to be good and the
shape of the MDI microdroplet on the fl ax
fi bre shows a small contact angle, which is
Fig. 3. Simplifi ed schematical representation of the composite material (left) and scale 1 fl ax-reinforced
headliner (right)
indicative of good adhesion between the
two components. Th is is confi rmed by the
interfacial shear stress (IFSS) values. Th e
table in Figure 2 shows values from the literature,
obtained on the same equipment
with diff erent fi bre-resin couples. Without
any specifi c treatment of the fl ax fi bres, the
measured strength is high and consistently
higher than the values obtained with other
thermoset or thermoplastic resins. Th e adhesion
of the MDI resin on the glass fi bres
is also very good. Th ese measurements validate
the choice of fl ax for these composite
plies and suggest good interfaces within the
parts for adequate peeling behaviour.
Design and manufacture
of the headliner prototype
Th e petroleum-based version of the composite
material integrates seven diff erent
layers of raw materials, the main ones being
PU foam and glass fi bres. To manufacture
the fi nal part, a thermoforming process is
used followed by specifi c fi nishing steps
such as trimming. Th e fl ax fi bre web developed
by Eco-Technilin was used for the new
bio-based headliner. Diff erent lab-scale validation
tests were performed all along the
project and a fi nal version of the web was
recently fi nalized, showing good homogeneity,
good handleability and a suitable areal
weight. Aft er complete material validation
of the fl ax web's properties, scale 1 headliners
were produced (Figure 3).
It is interesting to note that the lightweight
fl ax webs were integrated without any modifi
cation of the existing process - these are
drop-in replacements.
Th e freshly produced prototypes are innovative
and of great interest to Howa-Tramico
as part of the company's green transition
and product evolution towards more environmentally-friendly
solutions.
Th e potential market connects the fl ax agricultural
sector and the automotive industry,
while highlighting the positive environmental
impact of this solution. Th is product
off ers a certain safety factor to the fl ax fi bre
market, as 20% of EU headliners are produced
by Howa-Tramico, while increasing
Eco-Technilin's production volume.
Environmental and technical validation
Figure 4 shows the main results of the
new panel's lifecycle analysis compared
to the glass-reinforced version, alongside
the main characteristics obtained on the
scale 1 prototype.
Fig. 2: SEM images of an MDI microdroplet on a fl ax fi bre (top left), of the composite stem (bottom
left) and summary table of the interfacial shear stress values obtained with a range of fi bre-polymer
systems (right)
46
jec composites magazine / N°
147 September - October 2022
Very interestingly, one can notice that mechanically
speaking, the fl ax headliner can
compete with glass-reinforced products in
terms of bending properties, hardness and
adhesion with the foam, as expected based

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022

Cover
Edito
Creating the interior of “The most beautiful building in the world”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
Perspectives - Creating a forum to work together
Opening - New fibreglass factory in the heart of Central Asia
BUSINESS
Graphene - Effectiveness of graphene nano-platelets in composites
Carbon fibre - Sinopec intends to lead by example in China
Glass fibre - China promotes the use of glass fibre in construction
MANUFACTURING
Additive manufacturing - Towards a digital twin of UD tapes for automated fibre placement
Testing - Optical data rectification and ML-aided impedance analysis for quality assurance of carbon fibre
FEATURE AUTOMOTIVE: How are composites driving the future of automotive?
- Transportation - Thermoplastic composites: the path towards zero CO2 emissions in transport
- Compounding: Cutting-edge FDC technology reduces costs and CO2 emissions
- Pressure vessels: Enabling superior storage efficiency for Type 4 tanks with FPP dome reinforcements
- Battery: A new generation of battery packs with a recyclable epoxy SMC casing
- Lightweighting: Serial CFRTP structural part for BMW body-in-white application
- Natural fibre: Towards lightweight flax fibre-reinforced automotive headliners
SOLUTION
Sustainability - Upcycling gives a boost to coffee waste management
Defence - On field applications with composites
TECHNOLOGY
Ceramic: Cerapreg – a new concept for cost-effective reinforced ceramic composites
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Creating the interior of “The most beautiful building in the world”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Perspectives - Creating a forum to work together
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Opening - New fibreglass factory in the heart of Central Asia
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Graphene - Effectiveness of graphene nano-platelets in composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Carbon fibre - Sinopec intends to lead by example in China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Glass fibre - China promotes the use of glass fibre in construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Additive manufacturing - Towards a digital twin of UD tapes for automated fibre placement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Testing - Optical data rectification and ML-aided impedance analysis for quality assurance of carbon fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Transportation - Thermoplastic composites: the path towards zero CO2 emissions in transport
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Compounding: Cutting-edge FDC technology reduces costs and CO2 emissions
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Pressure vessels: Enabling superior storage efficiency for Type 4 tanks with FPP dome reinforcements
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Battery: A new generation of battery packs with a recyclable epoxy SMC casing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Lightweighting: Serial CFRTP structural part for BMW body-in-white application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Natural fibre: Towards lightweight flax fibre-reinforced automotive headliners
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Sustainability - Upcycling gives a boost to coffee waste management
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Defence - On field applications with composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Ceramic: Cerapreg – a new concept for cost-effective reinforced ceramic composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 56
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