JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 42

FEATURE lightweighting
Fig. 4: Carbon fi bre recycling steps
As expected, both the paint flow and
the following product properties could
be evaluated as uncritical. Further developments
in the design calculation
were incorporated into a reference
component, which was successfully
tested as a real part (Figure 3d) in a roof
pressure test, confirming the relevance
of the skeleton component design as a
structural component.
Series development
As part of series development, another
sheet metal tab was required at the
front (Figure 3b) in order to use the
validated solution for gluing the front
roof bow. In addition to the product
requirements (e.g. crash requirements),
series development also includes proof
of stable production in large series with
consistent product quality. Sustainability
targets also had to be achieved, especially
maintaining the weight advantage
over the evolving sheet metal shell construction,
in particular through minimal
material consumption and the use
of recycled materials.
Production of the skeleton
components and integration
into the BMW iX
Th e basic production concept was confi
rmed in series production, involving
three process steps from the carbon fi bre
42
jec composites magazine / N°
starting materials to the component. In
the fi rst step, the continuous fi bre is impregnated
with the PA6 matrix for the
UD inserts, pultruded into a straight rod
and cut to the required product length.
In the second step, the rod is melted
again and picked up by means of grippers.
As the end gear is already adjusted
by movements of the individual grippers,
it can accurately be placed in the
forming tool.
Th e fi nal contour is achieved by closing
the forming tool. In the following cycle,
the dimensionally stable but still warm
rods (Figure 3a) are inserted into the
injection mould in the same production
cell (Figure 5) together with the sheet
metal inserts and overmoulded with
the injection moulding compound. Th e
recycled injection moulding material is
also produced in three steps:
1) crushing the preform trimmings and
breaking them down into fi bres;
2) compounding with the PA6 matrix;
3) injection of the melted granules into
the closed mould (Figure 4).
Th e heat stored in the formed rod and
the melt-shaped injection moulding
compound is suffi cient to achieve a cohesive
material connection and thus
a good surface adhesion through heat
equalization processes.
147 September - October 2022
Starting from the straight CFRP rods,
the metal inserts and the carbon fi bre-reinforced
injection moulding granules, all
further processing steps are carried out
in a production cell (Figure 5) around
an injection moulding machine in the
BMW Group's plastics production unit
in Landshut. Th e two skeleton components
for the BMW iX, the front roof bow
(Figure 3c) and the rear window frame
are manufactured as front and rear roof
front roof bow. Th e digitization potential
is used directly, so that traceability from
the injection moulding and rod production
to the vehicle is possible within the
framework of quality assurance.
Th e insertion of preformed fi bre-reinforced
inserts proved to be an advantage
as this leads to a stable position of the
continuous fi bres, which signifi cantly
impacts the component's mechanical
properties. In addition, the inserts had
already shown during the concept phase
that the (already minimal) shrinkage
of the carbon fi bre-containing injection-moulded
material causes almost
no distortion of the component, resulting
in a very stable process. Th e third
advantage was that a cycle time of less
than 85 seconds could be achieved during
injection moulding, although several
parts are inserted and structural wall
thicknesses of over 10 mm are present
in the area of the CFRP inserts. Due to
the body shop integration, the number
of front roof bow parts is reduced from
four to one, without the need for new
processes. Th e same applies to the rear
window frame, which also uses a skeleton
construction. Th ere is no change
in the paint shop, as PA6 is non-critical
as a matrix material and the diff erence
between the KTL furnace temperature
(approximately 180°C) and the melting
temperature (220°C) is suffi cient. Even
at these temperatures, the fi bre structure
gives the skeleton components suffi cient
strength to withstand the forces in the
body resulting from the thermal diff erences
during heating and cooling.
Component design and protection
As early as the concept development
stage, software tools were iteratively

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022

Cover
Edito
Creating the interior of “The most beautiful building in the world”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
Perspectives - Creating a forum to work together
Opening - New fibreglass factory in the heart of Central Asia
BUSINESS
Graphene - Effectiveness of graphene nano-platelets in composites
Carbon fibre - Sinopec intends to lead by example in China
Glass fibre - China promotes the use of glass fibre in construction
MANUFACTURING
Additive manufacturing - Towards a digital twin of UD tapes for automated fibre placement
Testing - Optical data rectification and ML-aided impedance analysis for quality assurance of carbon fibre
FEATURE AUTOMOTIVE: How are composites driving the future of automotive?
- Transportation - Thermoplastic composites: the path towards zero CO2 emissions in transport
- Compounding: Cutting-edge FDC technology reduces costs and CO2 emissions
- Pressure vessels: Enabling superior storage efficiency for Type 4 tanks with FPP dome reinforcements
- Battery: A new generation of battery packs with a recyclable epoxy SMC casing
- Lightweighting: Serial CFRTP structural part for BMW body-in-white application
- Natural fibre: Towards lightweight flax fibre-reinforced automotive headliners
SOLUTION
Sustainability - Upcycling gives a boost to coffee waste management
Defence - On field applications with composites
TECHNOLOGY
Ceramic: Cerapreg – a new concept for cost-effective reinforced ceramic composites
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Creating the interior of “The most beautiful building in the world”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Perspectives - Creating a forum to work together
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Opening - New fibreglass factory in the heart of Central Asia
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Graphene - Effectiveness of graphene nano-platelets in composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Carbon fibre - Sinopec intends to lead by example in China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Glass fibre - China promotes the use of glass fibre in construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Additive manufacturing - Towards a digital twin of UD tapes for automated fibre placement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Testing - Optical data rectification and ML-aided impedance analysis for quality assurance of carbon fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Transportation - Thermoplastic composites: the path towards zero CO2 emissions in transport
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Compounding: Cutting-edge FDC technology reduces costs and CO2 emissions
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Pressure vessels: Enabling superior storage efficiency for Type 4 tanks with FPP dome reinforcements
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Battery: A new generation of battery packs with a recyclable epoxy SMC casing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Lightweighting: Serial CFRTP structural part for BMW body-in-white application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Natural fibre: Towards lightweight flax fibre-reinforced automotive headliners
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Sustainability - Upcycling gives a boost to coffee waste management
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Defence - On field applications with composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Ceramic: Cerapreg – a new concept for cost-effective reinforced ceramic composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 56
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