JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 27

Optical data rectification and ML-aided impedance analysis for quality assurance of carbon fibre
Fig. 5: Curves of the rectified magnitude according
to the Suragus and ITA approaches
Thus, whether adjusted by the Suragus
or by the ITA approach, the magnitude
describes the position-dependent
quality of the roving. It is striking that
both approaches lead to very similar
measured value curves. Thus, the goal
of a magnitude adjusted for geometric
factors can be achieved via these two
approaches developed independently
of each other, as shown in Figure 5.
Here,
the
course
of
the
adjusted
magnitude of an HTS40 F13 coil is
plotted in detail over a period of about
two minutes. The adjusted magnitude
according to the ITA and Suragus
approaches is shown in blue and in red,
respectively, in order to highlight the
similarity of the two curves.
KDD Cycle 3: Transformation -
Data selection for ML application
The choice of a suitable data basis for
quality analysis using ML is crucial.
If further measurement data from the
camera is used to evaluate the roving
quality, the accuracy of the information
can be improved. The FuzzDist camera
measurement value, for example,
describes the maximum distance of
protruding filaments from the edge of
the roving: the more severely a roving
section is damaged, the greater the
probability that a broken filament will
protrude. When the adjusted magnitude
is plotted over FuzzDist, a contiguous
cloud of points is formed. Figure
6 shows that as damage increases, both
the magnitude and the FuzzDist reading
increase.
Compared to all the possible combinations
of the adjusted magnitude with
Fig. 6: Graphical representation of the rectified
magnitude via FuzzDist, the maximum distance of
protruding filaments to the roving
measurement data from the camera,
the combined evaluation of adjusted
magnitude and FuzzDist shows to be
the most suitable for detecting quality
differences in the roving.
KDD Cycle 4: Data mining -
ML Application
Different approaches are investigated
for the analysis of the merged measurement
data. These include the partitioning
method, density-based clustering,
and hierarchical clustering, which are
among the most widely recognized
methods in the field of ML. Since the
measured values result in connected
hierarchical
point
clouds,
is identified as the algorithm with the
highest potential for evaluating the
measured data.
The clusters shown in Figure 7(a) were
generated using the " average " fusion
algorithm, which is one of the seven
different fusion algorithms available
within clustering. In consultation with
the project partners, the point cloud
of the measured data was divided into
three clusters in order to be able to
grade the quality of the roving into
three damage levels. Figure 7 b) shows
the corresponding dendrogram, which
represents the clustering by ordering
the cluster size over the mean distance
of the data points. In this case, 105 data
points were identified as severely damaged,
4811 as moderately damaged and
166,621 as undamaged. The boundary
courses are approximately at the level of
-4 and -20.
clustering
KDD Cycle 5: Evaluation -
Assessment of the ML applications
As part of the ML algorithm development,
measurement data with damage
applied to the CF roving under laboratory
conditions (damage module)
as well as conspicuous coils from real
production are investigated.
While the data generated via the damage
module is used to develop the ML
algorithm, test series with conspicuous
coils from real production, without the
damage module, are used for validation
(Figure 8). Here, four of the seven fusion
algorithms behave very similarly. This is
expressed both in the similar distribution
number of the assigned degrees of
damage and in similar boundary curves
between the degrees of damage.
This allows a classification of the CF
roving into three quality levels based on
the adjusted magnitude.
a
b
Fig. 7: Evaluation of the rectified magnitude and FuzzDist via a clustering algorithm:
a) as a point cloud, and b) in the dendogram
N°147 September - October 2022 / jec composites magazine
27

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022

Cover
Edito
Creating the interior of “The most beautiful building in the world”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
Perspectives - Creating a forum to work together
Opening - New fibreglass factory in the heart of Central Asia
BUSINESS
Graphene - Effectiveness of graphene nano-platelets in composites
Carbon fibre - Sinopec intends to lead by example in China
Glass fibre - China promotes the use of glass fibre in construction
MANUFACTURING
Additive manufacturing - Towards a digital twin of UD tapes for automated fibre placement
Testing - Optical data rectification and ML-aided impedance analysis for quality assurance of carbon fibre
FEATURE AUTOMOTIVE: How are composites driving the future of automotive?
- Transportation - Thermoplastic composites: the path towards zero CO2 emissions in transport
- Compounding: Cutting-edge FDC technology reduces costs and CO2 emissions
- Pressure vessels: Enabling superior storage efficiency for Type 4 tanks with FPP dome reinforcements
- Battery: A new generation of battery packs with a recyclable epoxy SMC casing
- Lightweighting: Serial CFRTP structural part for BMW body-in-white application
- Natural fibre: Towards lightweight flax fibre-reinforced automotive headliners
SOLUTION
Sustainability - Upcycling gives a boost to coffee waste management
Defence - On field applications with composites
TECHNOLOGY
Ceramic: Cerapreg – a new concept for cost-effective reinforced ceramic composites
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Creating the interior of “The most beautiful building in the world”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Perspectives - Creating a forum to work together
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Opening - New fibreglass factory in the heart of Central Asia
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Graphene - Effectiveness of graphene nano-platelets in composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Carbon fibre - Sinopec intends to lead by example in China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Glass fibre - China promotes the use of glass fibre in construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Additive manufacturing - Towards a digital twin of UD tapes for automated fibre placement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Testing - Optical data rectification and ML-aided impedance analysis for quality assurance of carbon fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Transportation - Thermoplastic composites: the path towards zero CO2 emissions in transport
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Compounding: Cutting-edge FDC technology reduces costs and CO2 emissions
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Pressure vessels: Enabling superior storage efficiency for Type 4 tanks with FPP dome reinforcements
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Battery: A new generation of battery packs with a recyclable epoxy SMC casing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Lightweighting: Serial CFRTP structural part for BMW body-in-white application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Natural fibre: Towards lightweight flax fibre-reinforced automotive headliners
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Sustainability - Upcycling gives a boost to coffee waste management
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Defence - On field applications with composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Ceramic: Cerapreg – a new concept for cost-effective reinforced ceramic composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 56
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