JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 26

MANUFACTURlNG testing
Fig. 2: Eddy current sensor and camera module in the measurement section of the ITA Tribometer
a
b
The CF roving is pulled off a bobbin
and guided through the process by
several thread guiding elements. First,
the roving passes through the damage
module, in which the required level
of damage (0°, 45° and 90°) is applied
under
laboratory conditions
(Figure
3). The roving then passes through the
multimodal sensor system, consisting
of the camera module, a compressed air
cleaning module and the eddy current
sensor. The compressed air cleaning
module prevents deposits of CF fragments
from obstructing the sensor.
c
Fig. 3: Settings of the damage module for applying different levels of damage to the carbon fibre:
a) undamaged, b) moderately damaged and c) severely damaged
This suppresses a time-dependent shift
in the measurement signal that would
be caused by the increasing deposition
of conductive material in the effective
range of the sensor.
KDD Cycle 2:
Preprocessing - data cleaning
The multimodal sensor system makes
it possible to measure both the impedance,
via the eddy current sensor, and
geometric data such as the roving's
position and width, via the camera.
The impedance depends on the level of
damage applied to the roving, since the
number of filament breaks grows with
increasing damage and thus the electrical
resistance of the roving changes.
However, the eddy current sensor is
extremely sensitive to other influences,
such as the roving's position and width.
These influences can overlay the damage
in the measurement signal. For this
reason, data correction of the impedance
signal is necessary to compensate
the influences of the roving's width and
position. The correlation between the
geometric factors and the impedance
becomes clear when merging camera
and impedance measurement data.
Figure 4 shows an example of the impedance
curve parallel to position, which
describes the deviation of the roving
from the centre of the eddy current
sensor. The impedance is represented
as magnitude, denoting the magnitude
of the ohmic and capacitive-inductive
components of the impedance.
The correlation between the magnitude
and the width and centre geometric
factors is exploited for data cleaning.
Two different approaches to data cleaning
are used: the first one via linear
fitting by Suragus and the other one via
normalized accounting
of geometric
data and impedance by the ITA. In the
ITA's approach, the normalized magnitude
response is subtracted from the
normalized width and centre response.
This subtraction can be done in a
variety of orders, each producing very
similar results. For example, the 21,500
measurement points of the magnitude,
width and centre curves are normalized
and then all the values are subtracted
from each other simultaneously. Then,
this curve is normalized again. Finally,
a linear scaling is performed, so that
the
average
of actual
magnitudes becomes
comparable.
and adjusted
In
a
26
jec composites magazine / N°
b
Fig. 4: Optically similar courses of: a) centre and magnitude as well as; b) width and magnitude as an
indication of how the impedance (magnitude) depends on geometrical factors
147 September - October 2022
the Suragus approach, a theoretical
magnitude is calculated on the basis of
geometric factors, which corresponds
to the magnitude of an undamaged CF
roving as a function of the geometric
data. The theoretical magnitude is then
subtracted from the real measured magnitude,
so that the difference magnitude
is adjusted for geometric influences.

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022

Cover
Edito
Creating the interior of “The most beautiful building in the world”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
Perspectives - Creating a forum to work together
Opening - New fibreglass factory in the heart of Central Asia
BUSINESS
Graphene - Effectiveness of graphene nano-platelets in composites
Carbon fibre - Sinopec intends to lead by example in China
Glass fibre - China promotes the use of glass fibre in construction
MANUFACTURING
Additive manufacturing - Towards a digital twin of UD tapes for automated fibre placement
Testing - Optical data rectification and ML-aided impedance analysis for quality assurance of carbon fibre
FEATURE AUTOMOTIVE: How are composites driving the future of automotive?
- Transportation - Thermoplastic composites: the path towards zero CO2 emissions in transport
- Compounding: Cutting-edge FDC technology reduces costs and CO2 emissions
- Pressure vessels: Enabling superior storage efficiency for Type 4 tanks with FPP dome reinforcements
- Battery: A new generation of battery packs with a recyclable epoxy SMC casing
- Lightweighting: Serial CFRTP structural part for BMW body-in-white application
- Natural fibre: Towards lightweight flax fibre-reinforced automotive headliners
SOLUTION
Sustainability - Upcycling gives a boost to coffee waste management
Defence - On field applications with composites
TECHNOLOGY
Ceramic: Cerapreg – a new concept for cost-effective reinforced ceramic composites
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Creating the interior of “The most beautiful building in the world”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Perspectives - Creating a forum to work together
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Opening - New fibreglass factory in the heart of Central Asia
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Graphene - Effectiveness of graphene nano-platelets in composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Carbon fibre - Sinopec intends to lead by example in China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Glass fibre - China promotes the use of glass fibre in construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Additive manufacturing - Towards a digital twin of UD tapes for automated fibre placement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Testing - Optical data rectification and ML-aided impedance analysis for quality assurance of carbon fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Transportation - Thermoplastic composites: the path towards zero CO2 emissions in transport
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Compounding: Cutting-edge FDC technology reduces costs and CO2 emissions
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Pressure vessels: Enabling superior storage efficiency for Type 4 tanks with FPP dome reinforcements
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Battery: A new generation of battery packs with a recyclable epoxy SMC casing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Lightweighting: Serial CFRTP structural part for BMW body-in-white application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Natural fibre: Towards lightweight flax fibre-reinforced automotive headliners
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Sustainability - Upcycling gives a boost to coffee waste management
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Defence - On field applications with composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Ceramic: Cerapreg – a new concept for cost-effective reinforced ceramic composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 56
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