JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 24

MANUFACTURlNG additive manufacturing
twins, Fraunhofer IPT is working to reduce
the complexity and increase the robustness
of automated and sustainable composite
manufacturing processes.
More information:
Fig. 1: Creation of a digital twin of UD tapes at Fraunhofer IPT
with the AFP process.
To ensure the real and virtual versions of the
final composite part match, - as is the idea
of a digital twin [6] - the tape material has
to be assessed prior to processing. A digital
twin of the tape containing all the relevant
information must be developed. This may be
important not only for the subsequent AFP
processing, but also regarding the traceability
of quality-related issues. A digital twin can
either be batch-wise or even spatially resolved
along the complete tape length. Fraunhofer
IPT investigated various sensors and the
corresponding data to create a digital twin of
the tape material.
Sensor systems for creating
a digital twin of the tape
Many imperfections of the tape such as
variations in width, thickness, roughness,
reflectiveness, gaps or loose fibres can be
detected by visual inspection. Fraunhofer IPT
has developed a module to capture these tape
characteristics as the tape is pulled through the
module. By integrating a camera with a linked
encoder, images of the tape sections can be
captured. These images are pre-processed by
various image-processing algorithms so that
certain properties of the tape are better represented
and then analyzed through an artificial
neural network (ANN) that can recognize
certain features such as splits, holes and material
accumulations and accurately locate them
on the tape. The prerequisites for this system
to work are a good image resolution, stable
external boundary conditions and " similar "
tapes. To achieve good image quality, a camera
with a suitable resolution and lens must be
selected and distortion in the peripheral areas
of the image should be kept as low as possible.
The lighting system is of decisive importance.
It should be reproducible for all images and illuminate
the tape as evenly as possible without
24
jec composites magazine / N°
any reflections. To better detect splits, holes or
missing matrix material, a backlight can be
used. The artificial neural network can only
identify the features it is trained to recognize.
If the input data deviates too much from the
training, data classification is not possible. But
even without the ANN, information about
the tape width and its fluctuations can be
extracted, for example using an edge detection
algorithm. An analysis of the brightness and
a comparison with existing knowledge can
be used to estimate the tape's reflectivity. By
integrating a laser scanner (scanCONTROL
by Microepilson), it is possible to evaluate
the exact tape width, thickness, roughness
and waviness. All this information can then
be stored in a database that will hold a digital
representation of the physical tape.
The digital twin of the tape can either include
the information of the measured value or
interpret the values to a local quality scale that
is then mapped onto the tape. In the latter
case, the tape quality is derived by combining
the measured values into a single quality value.
This quality value can then be accumulated
over the whole tape length and used as a
quality indicator for the tape spool. When
using the tape spool in an AFP manufacturing
process, the information stored in the digital
twin of the tape can be directly used to tailor
the AFP process to achieve optimized component
quality. This is relevant for varying tape
qualities, especially when using recycled tape
materials.
Fraunhofer IPT is actively investigating the
creation of a digital twin of the tape material
since this is part of its overall digital twinning
roadmap for the AFP process. As part of the
current efforts to build a new manufacturing
cell
for
large composite structures, new
hardware and software are developed to
enable control strategies that go far beyond
the state of the art. With the help of digital
147 September - October 2022
www.ipt.fraunhofer.de
References
[1] Meyes, R., Tercan, H., Thiele, T., Krämer,
A., Heinisch, J., Liebenberg, M., Hirt, G.,
Hopmann, C., Lakemeyer, G., Meisen, T. and
Jeschke, S. " Interdisciplinary Data Driven
Production Process Analysis for the Internet
of Production " . Procedia Manufacturing
26c(2018): 1065-1076. DOI: 10.1016/j.
promfg.2018.07.143.
[2] Schulz, M., Janssen, H., Brecher, C. and
Evertz, A. " Online Analysis of Geometrical
Inaccuracies During the in-situ Automated
Fiber Placement of Tailored Composite
Blanks out of Thermoplastic Tape. " 5th
International Conference & Exhibition
on Thermoplastic Composites. Bremen,
13.-15.10.2020.
[3] Schulz, M., Janssen, H. and Brecher, C. " A
Digital Shadow for the Infrared-based Tape
Laying Process of Tailored Blanks out of
Thermoplastic Unidirectional Tape " . Procedia
CIRP 85c(2019): 224-229. DOI: 10.1016/j.
procir.2019.09.035.
[4] Schulz, M., Survila, E., Janssen, H. and
Brecher, C. " A Digital Twin for Estimating
Process Quality during Automated Fiber
Placement of Thermoplastic Composites. "
SAMPE Europe Conference. Baden/Zurich,
September 2021. SAMPE.
[5] Schäkel, M., McNab, J., Dodds, N.,
Peters, T., Janssen, H. and Brecher, C. " Data
collection and analysis for the creation of
a digital shadow during the production of
thermoplastic composite layers in unbonded
flexible pipes " . Proceedings of the ASME
2018 37th International Conference on
Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering
2018c: 1-9.
[6] Grieves, M. and Vickers, J. " Digital Twin:
Mitigating Unpredictable, Undesirable
Emergent Behavior in Complex Systems. "
Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Complex
Systems. Ed. Kahlen, F.-J.,Flumerfelt,
S.,Alves, A., Cham: Springer International
Publishing, 2017.
http://www.ipt.fraunhofer.de

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022

Cover
Edito
Creating the interior of “The most beautiful building in the world”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
Perspectives - Creating a forum to work together
Opening - New fibreglass factory in the heart of Central Asia
BUSINESS
Graphene - Effectiveness of graphene nano-platelets in composites
Carbon fibre - Sinopec intends to lead by example in China
Glass fibre - China promotes the use of glass fibre in construction
MANUFACTURING
Additive manufacturing - Towards a digital twin of UD tapes for automated fibre placement
Testing - Optical data rectification and ML-aided impedance analysis for quality assurance of carbon fibre
FEATURE AUTOMOTIVE: How are composites driving the future of automotive?
- Transportation - Thermoplastic composites: the path towards zero CO2 emissions in transport
- Compounding: Cutting-edge FDC technology reduces costs and CO2 emissions
- Pressure vessels: Enabling superior storage efficiency for Type 4 tanks with FPP dome reinforcements
- Battery: A new generation of battery packs with a recyclable epoxy SMC casing
- Lightweighting: Serial CFRTP structural part for BMW body-in-white application
- Natural fibre: Towards lightweight flax fibre-reinforced automotive headliners
SOLUTION
Sustainability - Upcycling gives a boost to coffee waste management
Defence - On field applications with composites
TECHNOLOGY
Ceramic: Cerapreg – a new concept for cost-effective reinforced ceramic composites
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Creating the interior of “The most beautiful building in the world”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Perspectives - Creating a forum to work together
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Opening - New fibreglass factory in the heart of Central Asia
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Graphene - Effectiveness of graphene nano-platelets in composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Carbon fibre - Sinopec intends to lead by example in China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Glass fibre - China promotes the use of glass fibre in construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Additive manufacturing - Towards a digital twin of UD tapes for automated fibre placement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Testing - Optical data rectification and ML-aided impedance analysis for quality assurance of carbon fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Transportation - Thermoplastic composites: the path towards zero CO2 emissions in transport
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Compounding: Cutting-edge FDC technology reduces costs and CO2 emissions
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Pressure vessels: Enabling superior storage efficiency for Type 4 tanks with FPP dome reinforcements
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Battery: A new generation of battery packs with a recyclable epoxy SMC casing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Lightweighting: Serial CFRTP structural part for BMW body-in-white application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - - Natural fibre: Towards lightweight flax fibre-reinforced automotive headliners
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Sustainability - Upcycling gives a boost to coffee waste management
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Defence - On field applications with composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Ceramic: Cerapreg – a new concept for cost-effective reinforced ceramic composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #147 - September/October 2022 - 56
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