JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 27

Hydrogen permeation testing on non-metallic materials
ed with fossil fuels. Th is includes composites
comprising a high proportion of glass or
carbon fi bres such as those used in pipelines.
Th is means it is vital to identify which
materials behave best, how well they resist
hydrogen and how long they can be expected
to remain serviceable. Hydrogen permeation
testing can provide manufacturers with important
knowledge regarding, for example,
how much hydrogen is going to pass through
the material, whether decompression cycles
are going to compromise structural integrity,
and if the material will be able to stay in service
for a given period of time. Such testing
has long been a critical part of the oil and gas
industry's safety processes, measuring permeability
characteristics of deep well components
such as seals, pressure barriers and
liners. As the hydrogen economy expands
beyond oil and gas and hydrogen generation
and transmission industries, more and more
are looking to hydrogen. As the use of
hydrogen is becoming more commonplace
in other industries such as aerospace, transportation
and heavy industry for fuel system
components, hydrogen storage tanks and,
chemical processing infrastructures, there is
an increasing demand for testing.
What is hydrogen permeation testing?
Hydrogen permeation testing involves
analysing three key aspects of material performance.
Firstly, a high pressure gas permeation
tests can measure how quickly hydrogen
passes through materials in comparison, for
example, to methane-and at pressures up
to 150 bar and temperatures from sub-zero
to 200°C. Element Materials Technology,
headquartered in London, currently conducts
tests with hydrogen on elastomers
and thermoplastics at pressures up to 150
bar with plans to increase this capability to
600 bar. Th ey have been able to compare
permeation rates to previously-tested gases.
Th e diagram below shows hydrogen versus
methane permeation through a thermoplastic
at 40°C and 40 bar, with hydrogen permeating
approximately 40 times faster than
methane. Secondly, as part of the permeation
process, gas dissolves in the material. When
the applied pressure is removed, this gas tries
to escape from the material and can cause
damage in the process, referred to as rapid gas
decompression (RGD) damage. Some gases
cause signifi cant problems to non-metallic
materials, including composites. Th e potential
for hydrogen to cause damage must to
be investigated due to the risk of it aff ecting
component integrity, as shown in the GRE
pipe wall below. Testing can be undertaken at
pressures up to 150 bar and 150°C. Th e third
aspect focuses on ageing, examining how
non-metallic materials behave in the long
term, when exposed to hydrogen. Ageing is
addressed by measuring changes in mechanical
performance over time when the material
is saturated with hydrogen. In composites,
the interface between the fi bres and the resin
matrix is where degradation mechanisms
might become evident. Th is testing can be
undertaken at 150 bar and 150°C over many
months in order to replicate or accelerate
in-service conditions. A long-term ageing test
can also be combined with a decompression
test to examine whether ageing degradation
results in a reduction in decompression
resistance.
To which Standards does Element test?
Element commonly tests to a variety of industry-recognised
standards, including:
- Permeation ASTM D1434, ISO 2782-1
- RGD ISO 23936
- Ageing ISO 23936
- NORSOK M-710
Plus, many NACE and API relevant standards
In addition, Element works with clients to
design and implement customised permeation
test programmes, which we frequently
provide for components such as O-rings
and sealing elements. If required, we can also
integrate several polymer testing methods into
a single test programme.
Example of RGD damage to a GRE pipe wall
Key considerations when preparing to
undertake hydrogen permeation testing
When preparing to test, it is important that the
manufacturer is clear about what they would
like to achieve from the process, whether
this is identifying the permeation rate or
understanding and modifying the material
or component to reduce permeation. Th e
sample also needs due consideration to ensure
the success of the programme.
Questions which might need to be given
advance consideration include the length of
term the component or material will be in use,
if decompression is likely to be an issue during
operation, if the component will be in an
enclosed environment where accumulation
of permeated H2
could potentially become
will be economically
hazardous, and if a long pipeline permeating
cubic meters of H2
viable. Our hydrogen experts work closely
with the manufacturer in preparing to test,
helping to ensure that the right questions have
been asked to ensure a smooth test process.
Element has 30 years of experience of testing
materials in high pressure gas environments
and is now sharing its expertise developed in
the oil and gas industry with other industries
looking towards utilising hydrogen. As
a member of the Henry Royce Institute
committ ee, the UK's National Institute for
Advanced Materials Research and Innovation,
Element has also participated in the writing of
ISO 23936 series of standards. With very few
test houses are able to demonstrate proven
expertise and capability in this sector, our
experts have built up a wealth of experience
regarding permeation and decompression
damage mechanisms, including visual observation
of the phenomenon at high pressure
for a variety of materials and components.
More information:
www.element.com/energy/hydrogen
www.element.com/materials-testing-services/composite-testing
Focus
About
Element Materials Technology
Element is little more than a decade old,
but can trace its origins back to 1827.
With roots based in industrial testing and
measurement in the Victorian era, Element
businesses have been involved in
materials and product testing that gave
the world the Model T ford, put Concorde
into the skies and has helped keep Venice
afloat. Element was formed in 2010, after
a management buy-out of the testing division
of the Netherlands-based Stork Engineering
Group, backed by 3i Group plc.
Starting with 860 people in 27 laboratories,
the Group has grown dramatically in
the last ten years, as many organisations
have moved their testing requirements to
specialist providers.
N°143 November - December 2021 / jec composites magazine
27
Feature Energy
http://www.element.com/energy/hydrogen https://www.element.com/materials-testing-services/composite-testing

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021

Cover
Edito
«Our goal is to deliver a car that you only need to charge once or twice a year»
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
Training - ‘‘We have always provided experienced personnel to support our clients composites operations’’
Lightweighting - Novel, affordable solutions for lightweight automotive and aerospace parts
BUSINESS
Market - Carbon fibre: China accelerates the timelines
Development - Five decades of composites, from raw materials to finished parts
MANUFACTURING
Injection - Hollow stereolithographic structures reinforced by short carbon fibres
FEATURE ENERGY: Are Composites ubiquitous in the Energy sector ?
- Hydrogen: Hydrogen permeation testing on non-metallic materials
- Strategy: EuCIA highlights opportunities for composites under EU Green Deal energy strategies
- Consortium - Megapol by EDF: the polymer wild card of the nuclear sector
- Windblade - Vestas V236-15.0 MW: the Eiffel Tower of the seas
- Raw materials: New surfacing technology enabling high-quality paint-ready surfaces
- Natural fibre - The Green Nacelle: pioneering natural-fibre composites in wind energy
- Recycling: Zero-emission blade recycling
- Recycling: FAIRMAT raises 8.6 million euros for carbon fibre composites recycling
SOLUTIONS
e&e - Gita mini, the Sherpa robot
Textile - A ‘‘Composite Textile’’ brand from Japan
Railway - Composites won’t be left standing on the platform
TECHNOLOGY
Vitrimers - Fibre-reinforced composites with a vitrimer matrix
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - «Our goal is to deliver a car that you only need to charge once or twice a year»
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Training - ‘‘We have always provided experienced personnel to support our clients composites operations’’
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Lightweighting - Novel, affordable solutions for lightweight automotive and aerospace parts
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Market - Carbon fibre: China accelerates the timelines
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Development - Five decades of composites, from raw materials to finished parts
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Injection - Hollow stereolithographic structures reinforced by short carbon fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Hydrogen: Hydrogen permeation testing on non-metallic materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Strategy: EuCIA highlights opportunities for composites under EU Green Deal energy strategies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Consortium - Megapol by EDF: the polymer wild card of the nuclear sector
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Windblade - Vestas V236-15.0 MW: the Eiffel Tower of the seas
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Raw materials: New surfacing technology enabling high-quality paint-ready surfaces
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Natural fibre - The Green Nacelle: pioneering natural-fibre composites in wind energy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Recycling: Zero-emission blade recycling
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Recycling: FAIRMAT raises 8.6 million euros for carbon fibre composites recycling
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - e&e - Gita mini, the Sherpa robot
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Textile - A ‘‘Composite Textile’’ brand from Japan
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Railway - Composites won’t be left standing on the platform
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Vitrimers - Fibre-reinforced composites with a vitrimer matrix
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 56
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