JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 22

MANUFACTURlNG injection
However, these methods are very limited
in terms of geometric freedom since
grooves can only be integrated on the
part surface and branched channels cannot
be filled completely with continuous
fibres due to fibre interaction. Since
most topology-optimized parts have
a complex shape (see Figure 1), other
production processes are needed.
Therefore, this study investigates
whether the use of short fibres enables a
Fig. 2: Basic manufacturing principle for reinforcing SL parts by infusing a short fi bre suspension into channels
Additive manufacturing is the only way
to produce such complex structures in
a practical way. Metal-based techniques
can be used but they involve energy- and
cost-intensive processes. Plastic-based
additive manufacturing offers a less
costly alternative. This includes stereolithography
(SL) processes, which enable
high-precision processing of thermoset
resins. Most of the resins consist of
acrylate- or epoxy-based photopolymers
with only low mechanical properties [3].
Therefore, their use as a single-component
material for structural parts is often
inappropriate. In the field of conventional
fibre
composite manufacturing,
it has been shown that the combination
of thermoset resins and carbon fibres
can produce strong composite materials.
Typically, long or continuous fibres are
used for this purpose, but they result in
inaccurate printing results when used in
SL processes [4]. If short fibres are added
directly to the resin in the SL process
instead, part accuracy can be preserved.
However, this is only possible using a
limited weight fraction of carbon fibres
due to their opaque properties, which
is why the improvement of mechanical
properties is limited [5].
Th erefore, alternative manufacturing
methods are being investigated to reinforce
SL parts in order to expand their
range of applications. One possibility is
the subsequent addition of continuous
fi bres. For this purpose, grooves or channels
can be added to the part design, into
which continuous fi bres are integrated in a
subsequent production step [6].
geometrically more flexible subsequent
reinforcement of additively-manufactured
plastic parts. To achieve
this,
a suspension consisting of infusion
resin and short carbon fibres is filled into
channels by combining vacuum infusion
and pressure casting (see Figure 2).
The structure to be infused is produced
by means of SL, as this enables the production
of vacuum- and pressure-tight
structures [7]. This allows complete
evacuation of the channels before starting
the infusion process, which should
avoid the formation of pores and voids
due to air entrapment.
Materials
Two types of test specimens were used
in this study. First, a generic chicane
geometry produced out of the transparent,
acrylic-based photopolymer from
Henkel AG & Co. KGaA to observe the
suspension flow while infusing. Secondly,
Fig. 3: a) Overview of
the experimental setup;
b) Flow of the short
fi bre suspension in the
transparent SL chicane
geometry
22
jec composites magazine / N°
143 November - December 2021

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021

Cover
Edito
«Our goal is to deliver a car that you only need to charge once or twice a year»
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
Training - ‘‘We have always provided experienced personnel to support our clients composites operations’’
Lightweighting - Novel, affordable solutions for lightweight automotive and aerospace parts
BUSINESS
Market - Carbon fibre: China accelerates the timelines
Development - Five decades of composites, from raw materials to finished parts
MANUFACTURING
Injection - Hollow stereolithographic structures reinforced by short carbon fibres
FEATURE ENERGY: Are Composites ubiquitous in the Energy sector ?
- Hydrogen: Hydrogen permeation testing on non-metallic materials
- Strategy: EuCIA highlights opportunities for composites under EU Green Deal energy strategies
- Consortium - Megapol by EDF: the polymer wild card of the nuclear sector
- Windblade - Vestas V236-15.0 MW: the Eiffel Tower of the seas
- Raw materials: New surfacing technology enabling high-quality paint-ready surfaces
- Natural fibre - The Green Nacelle: pioneering natural-fibre composites in wind energy
- Recycling: Zero-emission blade recycling
- Recycling: FAIRMAT raises 8.6 million euros for carbon fibre composites recycling
SOLUTIONS
e&e - Gita mini, the Sherpa robot
Textile - A ‘‘Composite Textile’’ brand from Japan
Railway - Composites won’t be left standing on the platform
TECHNOLOGY
Vitrimers - Fibre-reinforced composites with a vitrimer matrix
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - «Our goal is to deliver a car that you only need to charge once or twice a year»
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Training - ‘‘We have always provided experienced personnel to support our clients composites operations’’
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Lightweighting - Novel, affordable solutions for lightweight automotive and aerospace parts
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Market - Carbon fibre: China accelerates the timelines
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Development - Five decades of composites, from raw materials to finished parts
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Injection - Hollow stereolithographic structures reinforced by short carbon fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Hydrogen: Hydrogen permeation testing on non-metallic materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Strategy: EuCIA highlights opportunities for composites under EU Green Deal energy strategies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Consortium - Megapol by EDF: the polymer wild card of the nuclear sector
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Windblade - Vestas V236-15.0 MW: the Eiffel Tower of the seas
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Raw materials: New surfacing technology enabling high-quality paint-ready surfaces
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Natural fibre - The Green Nacelle: pioneering natural-fibre composites in wind energy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Recycling: Zero-emission blade recycling
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - - Recycling: FAIRMAT raises 8.6 million euros for carbon fibre composites recycling
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - e&e - Gita mini, the Sherpa robot
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Textile - A ‘‘Composite Textile’’ brand from Japan
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Railway - Composites won’t be left standing on the platform
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Vitrimers - Fibre-reinforced composites with a vitrimer matrix
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #143 - November/December 2021 - 56
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