JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 59

Advanced composite materials for prosthetic sockets in developing countries

Tab.3: Performance value calculation results for advanced composite alternatives

Functional

Custom fit

Aesthetics

0.449

0.376

0.175

Strength

Weight per
unit volume

Ease of
cutting

Forming
capability in
the prosthetic
socket cast

Resistance
to fracture,
tear, and
fraying

Colour
options

Pattern
options

0.511

0.489

0.103

0.505

0.392

0.736

0.264

Texalium

0.209

0.223

0.23

0.275

0.227

0.391

0.314

0.256

Carbon fibre

0.365

0.269

0.23

0.275

0.247

0.137

0.314

0.272

Carbon Kevlar

0.389

0.251

0.17

0.275

0.170

0.406

0.314

0.295

Polinet

0.038

0.257

0.37

0.176

0.356

0.066

0.057

0.176

Weighted
value

Performance
value

Alternatives

Fig. 7: Classification of
the advanced composite
alternatives

As many as six specimens were tested
for each material. The average value
of the test results for each specimen
along with the standard deviation
represented the density value of each
material. The results of the density
test showed that the density of advanced composites is not much different from the density of Polinet.
Carbon fibre (1164.74±0.109 kg/
m3) has the lowest density, lower than the density of Polinet
(1219.91±0.186 kg/m3), followed by
carbon Kevlar (1248.85±0.098 kg/
m3) and Texalium (1407.79±0.021
kg/m3).
The material property chart in Figure
6 describes the relationship between
the strength and density of materials.
The strength/density material property chart is used for designing light

and strong structures. Each bubble
describes a material classification according to the value of its properties
[18]. Figure 6 shows the strength/
density relationship for each specimen made of Texalium, carbon fibre,
carbon Kevlar, and Polinet.
The strength to density classification of each alternative is shown in
Figure 7. It was found that carbon fibre and carbon Kevlar fall under the
"composite" class bubble based on
the strength/density material property chart due to their high strength
and low density. Texalium also falls
under the "composite" class bubble
but leans more towards the "ceramic" class bubble due to its moderate
strength and its higher density than
carbon Kevlar and carbon fibre,
while Polinet falls under the "poly-

Fig. 8: Carbon Kevlar prosthetic
arm socket prototype

mers & elastomers" class bubble due
to its lower strength with a similar
density to carbon Kevlar and carbon
fibre.
The strength (tensile strength)
and weight per unit volume (density) sub-criteria values, which are
quantitative as opposed to other
sub-criteria, were normalized using a
maximum/minimum value normalization method [19]. The strength
(tensile strength) sub-criterion used
the maximum value normalization
method because the highest strength

SPECIAL ISSUE Sports, Health & Leisure / November 2020 /

jec composites magazine

59



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020

Cover
Edito
Contents
TRENDS
Business - Sports and health: a wealth of opportunities for composites
e-Bike - Uncertainties over Chinese supply chains put pressure on electric bike producers
Opportunities - The Gaming industry asks composites players: are you ready?
PROCESSING
Characterization - Bamboo versus maple from a skateboard manufacturer’s viewpoint
Engineering lntegrated loop technology provides new high strength joints for carbon fibre composites
Additive manufacturing - Disrupting the composite tooling supply chain
Biocomposites - Changing the outdoor hardware industry
APPLICATION
Climbing - A mountain in the middle of the city
Acoustic - The sound of composite violins investigated
Loudspeakers - Best sound in the world
Jewellery - Shine bright like a composite
Travel - Carbon fibre composites give luggage a leg up
Watersports - Closed-loop recycling of epoxy composites
Running shoes - Composites make their own mark in China
Sprinting shoes - Future of sprinting: spikeless CFRTP sprinting shoe
Medical - Advanced composite materials for prosthetic sockets in developing countries
Prostheses - A new way to make prostheses and orthoses
Paralympics - ‘‘The company’s objective is to design a future full of choices”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Business - Sports and health: a wealth of opportunities for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 8
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - e-Bike - Uncertainties over Chinese supply chains put pressure on electric bike producers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Opportunities - The Gaming industry asks composites players: are you ready?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Characterization - Bamboo versus maple from a skateboard manufacturer’s viewpoint
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Engineering lntegrated loop technology provides new high strength joints for carbon fibre composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Additive manufacturing - Disrupting the composite tooling supply chain
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Biocomposites - Changing the outdoor hardware industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Climbing - A mountain in the middle of the city
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Acoustic - The sound of composite violins investigated
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Loudspeakers - Best sound in the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Jewellery - Shine bright like a composite
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Travel - Carbon fibre composites give luggage a leg up
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Watersports - Closed-loop recycling of epoxy composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Running shoes - Composites make their own mark in China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Sprinting shoes - Future of sprinting: spikeless CFRTP sprinting shoe
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Medical - Advanced composite materials for prosthetic sockets in developing countries
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Prostheses - A new way to make prostheses and orthoses
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Paralympics - ‘‘The company’s objective is to design a future full of choices”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 68
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