JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 58

APPLICATION medical

Tab.1: Expert consensus results for prosthetic arm socket criteria and sub-criteria

Criteria (Level 1)

Sub-criteria (Level 2)
Strength (tensile strength) (0.511)

Functional (0.449)

Weight per unit volume (density) (0.489)
Ease of cutting (0.103)
Forming capability in the prosthetic socket cast
(0.505)

Custom fit (0.376

Resistance to fracture, tear, and fraying (0.392)
Colour options (0.736)

Aesthetics (0.175)

Pattern options (0.264)

Tab.2: Calculation results from the maximum/minimum value normalization method

No

Alternatives

Tensile
strength
(106 N/m2)

Weighted
tensile
strength value

Density
(103 kg/m3)

Weighted
density value

1

Texalium

111.1

0.21

1.408

0.22

2

Carbon fibre

194.2

0.36

1.165

0.27

3

Carbon Kevlar

207.2

0.39

1.249

0.25

4

Polinet

20.2

0.04

1.220

0.26

from Rehabilitasi Sosial Bina Daksa
(BBRSBD) Surakarta, advanced composite experts from the Sebelas Maret
University Surakarta and transradial
(below elbow) prosthetic arm users.
Table 1 shows the results of the criteria
and sub-criteria weighing.
The four materials selected as alternatives for this study were carbon
fibre, carbon Kevlar, Texalium (due
to its availability in the research area)
and Polinet (the usual prosthetic arm
socket material in developing countries). The advanced composite material used in the research was a twill 3k
woven fabric, while the Polinet was a
product from PT Sinaraya Nugraha
Ahmadaris Medika, Pasuruan, East
Java, Indonesia. The laminate composite was produced by hand lay-up
at room temperature (25-30°C), consisting of four layers of material with a
symmetrical fibre orientation to reach
a thickness of 3.2±0.4 mm (ASTM
D638, 2014). A polyurethane resin
with a hardener in a 1:1 ratio was used

58

as a matrix to make the specimens,
which were cut from the laminate. The
dimensions of the tensile test specimen
referred to the ASTM D638 type I
standard, while the dimensions of the
density test specimen referred to the
ASTM D792-08 standard.
The tensile test was conducted using

a SHT4000 Series servo hydraulic
universal testing machine at room
temperature (25-30°C). The testing
speed according to the ASTM D638
type I standard was 25%±5 mm/min.
The dimensions of the specimens were
165x13x0.5±3.2±0.4 mm. Five specimens were tested for each material.
The average value of the test results for
each specimen along with the standard deviation represented the tensile
strength value of each material.
The results of the tensile test showed
that advanced composites have a higher tensile strength than Polinet. Carbon
Kevlar had the highest tensile strength
(207.18±25.21 MPa), followed by
carbon fibre (194.18±31.59 MPa),
Texalium (111.1±28.45 MPa), and
Polinet (20.23±3.01 MPa).
The density test was conducted with an
analytical balance. The test specimens
were small pieces of the laminate prepared before. The specimen thickness
was not less than 1 mm for each 1 g
weight. Each specimen was placed in
a container (steel wire mesh) hanging
on the analytical balance using a wire
hook and was weighed in air and submerged in liquid. The liquid was water
at a temperature of 23°C (ρ = 997.5412
kg/m3) (ASTM D792-08, 2008). The
specimens were coated with plasticine
to prevent water absorption.

Fig. 6. Strength/density
material property chart
(Source: Ashby, 2011)

	 jec composites magazine / November 2020 / SPECIAL ISSUE Sports, Health & Leisure



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020

Cover
Edito
Contents
TRENDS
Business - Sports and health: a wealth of opportunities for composites
e-Bike - Uncertainties over Chinese supply chains put pressure on electric bike producers
Opportunities - The Gaming industry asks composites players: are you ready?
PROCESSING
Characterization - Bamboo versus maple from a skateboard manufacturer’s viewpoint
Engineering lntegrated loop technology provides new high strength joints for carbon fibre composites
Additive manufacturing - Disrupting the composite tooling supply chain
Biocomposites - Changing the outdoor hardware industry
APPLICATION
Climbing - A mountain in the middle of the city
Acoustic - The sound of composite violins investigated
Loudspeakers - Best sound in the world
Jewellery - Shine bright like a composite
Travel - Carbon fibre composites give luggage a leg up
Watersports - Closed-loop recycling of epoxy composites
Running shoes - Composites make their own mark in China
Sprinting shoes - Future of sprinting: spikeless CFRTP sprinting shoe
Medical - Advanced composite materials for prosthetic sockets in developing countries
Prostheses - A new way to make prostheses and orthoses
Paralympics - ‘‘The company’s objective is to design a future full of choices”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Business - Sports and health: a wealth of opportunities for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 8
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - e-Bike - Uncertainties over Chinese supply chains put pressure on electric bike producers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Opportunities - The Gaming industry asks composites players: are you ready?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Characterization - Bamboo versus maple from a skateboard manufacturer’s viewpoint
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Engineering lntegrated loop technology provides new high strength joints for carbon fibre composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Additive manufacturing - Disrupting the composite tooling supply chain
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Biocomposites - Changing the outdoor hardware industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Climbing - A mountain in the middle of the city
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Acoustic - The sound of composite violins investigated
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Loudspeakers - Best sound in the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Jewellery - Shine bright like a composite
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Travel - Carbon fibre composites give luggage a leg up
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Watersports - Closed-loop recycling of epoxy composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Running shoes - Composites make their own mark in China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Sprinting shoes - Future of sprinting: spikeless CFRTP sprinting shoe
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Medical - Advanced composite materials for prosthetic sockets in developing countries
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Prostheses - A new way to make prostheses and orthoses
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Paralympics - ‘‘The company’s objective is to design a future full of choices”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 68
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