JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 57

Advanced composite materials for prosthetic sockets in developing countries

Fig. 4: (a) Carbon fibre
specimen for density
test; (b) Texalium specimen for density test; (c)
carbon Kevlar specimen
for density test; (d)
Polinet specimen for
density test

Fig. 5: Density test
result chart for the
different material
alternatives

processes from a paired comparison
(pairwise) process with the help of a
number of respondents that rate each
sub-criterion from a set value scale. The
weighted values of the criteria, sub-criteria, and alternatives are then used
to calculate performance values for
each alternative. The alternative with
the highest performance value will be
deemed as the most appropriate material for prosthetic arm sockets.
Results and discussion
Some properties are worth noting
when producing a proper prosthetic
hand socket. A prosthetic hand socket
has to be strong, but also lightweight
to lower the user's energy expenditure
so it can be functional. A product is
regarded as functional if functions as
intended [15]. To be regarded as functional, a prosthetic socket should meet
two sub-criteria, namely strength and
low weight. Strength is measured by
the tensile strength and lightweight is

measured by the density of each alternative. Another criterion to consider is
the socket's fit. The material used has to
be capable of forming complex shapes
(custom fit) so it can be installed comfortably to the user's stump (Klasson,
1985) [7]. The custom-fit criteria concern the prosthetic manufacturing process. The method used to manufacture
a prosthesis, especially in a developing
country, is hand lay-up. The material
is cut and pasted on a cast using a resin matrix repeatedly until the desired
thickness is reached [16]. Thus, the
sub-criteria that should be considered
are the cutting ease and the forming
capability in the prosthetic socket cast.
Murray (2009) [17] suggests that aesthetics should also be considered as a
criterion. Amputees from developing
countries also give an eye on the aesthetics of the prosthesis. A prosthesis
with attractive aesthetics will give users
more confidence in wearing it. A product's aesthetics are determined by its

colour, pattern, and texture [15]. In the
context of a prosthetic socket, different
materials will offer different colours,
patterns, and textures.
The Delphi method was used to confirm the criteria and sub-criteria established. A questionnaire was filled out by
experts with experience in the subjects
discussed in the research. Any disagreement or change recommended by
an expert was communicated to all the
other experts who agreed/disagreed
with the change [14]. This process was
repeated until all the experts reached a
consensus. The experts involved in this
step were advanced composite material specialists from MaliqComposites
Yogyakarta, prosthetic manufacturers
from Balai Besar Rehabilitasi Sosial
Bina Daksa (BBRSBD) Surakarta,
and from the Sebelas Maret University
Surakarta. The first round of the questionnaire showed that not all the experts agreed with all of the criteria.
Regarding functional and custom fit,
all the experts approved each criterion
and sub-criterion. However, regarding
aesthetics, the texture sub-criteria were
judged less suitable. This decision was
based on the advice of an advanced
composite material expert, who argued that the resulting texture of each
material will be the same because of
the resin finish. He also suggested to
add another sub-criterion, namely resistance to fracture, tear, and fraying, to
the custom fit criteria because this influences the final results. A consensus
between all the experts was achieved
for the results of the second round of
the questionnaire.
The weighted value of each criterion
and sub-criterion was then calculated
with the help of a number of respondents who compared each criterion and
sub-criterion with a paired comparison
(pairwise) and rated each of them using a set value scale. Another questionnaire was distributed to respondents
comprising advanced composite material experts from MaliqComposites
Yogyakarta, prosthetic manufacturers

SPECIAL ISSUE Sports, Health & Leisure / November 2020 /

jec composites magazine

57



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020

Cover
Edito
Contents
TRENDS
Business - Sports and health: a wealth of opportunities for composites
e-Bike - Uncertainties over Chinese supply chains put pressure on electric bike producers
Opportunities - The Gaming industry asks composites players: are you ready?
PROCESSING
Characterization - Bamboo versus maple from a skateboard manufacturer’s viewpoint
Engineering lntegrated loop technology provides new high strength joints for carbon fibre composites
Additive manufacturing - Disrupting the composite tooling supply chain
Biocomposites - Changing the outdoor hardware industry
APPLICATION
Climbing - A mountain in the middle of the city
Acoustic - The sound of composite violins investigated
Loudspeakers - Best sound in the world
Jewellery - Shine bright like a composite
Travel - Carbon fibre composites give luggage a leg up
Watersports - Closed-loop recycling of epoxy composites
Running shoes - Composites make their own mark in China
Sprinting shoes - Future of sprinting: spikeless CFRTP sprinting shoe
Medical - Advanced composite materials for prosthetic sockets in developing countries
Prostheses - A new way to make prostheses and orthoses
Paralympics - ‘‘The company’s objective is to design a future full of choices”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Business - Sports and health: a wealth of opportunities for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 8
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - e-Bike - Uncertainties over Chinese supply chains put pressure on electric bike producers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Opportunities - The Gaming industry asks composites players: are you ready?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Characterization - Bamboo versus maple from a skateboard manufacturer’s viewpoint
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Engineering lntegrated loop technology provides new high strength joints for carbon fibre composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Additive manufacturing - Disrupting the composite tooling supply chain
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Biocomposites - Changing the outdoor hardware industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Climbing - A mountain in the middle of the city
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Acoustic - The sound of composite violins investigated
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Loudspeakers - Best sound in the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Jewellery - Shine bright like a composite
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Travel - Carbon fibre composites give luggage a leg up
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Watersports - Closed-loop recycling of epoxy composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Running shoes - Composites make their own mark in China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Sprinting shoes - Future of sprinting: spikeless CFRTP sprinting shoe
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Medical - Advanced composite materials for prosthetic sockets in developing countries
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Prostheses - A new way to make prostheses and orthoses
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - Paralympics - ‘‘The company’s objective is to design a future full of choices”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Special Issue Composites for Sports, Health & Leisure - November 2020 - 68
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