JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 60

TECHNOLOGY bonding
area where CF is clearly the major failure type, like between
20 and 50 mm displacement in the C-c specimen or after 130
mm displacement in the A-c specimen, the peel load is never
as high as for the A-a or C-a specimens. Even when the CF
percentage is higher in the C-c or A-c specimens than in the
A-a or C-a specimens, the peel load is always significantly
lower when peeling off a composite than when peeling off
aluminium. This proves once more that the major decrease
of the peel load between the A-a (or C-a) specimens and C-c
(or A-c) specimens is related to the type of flexible adherend
and not to the type of fracture surface.
Effect of the flexible adherend
The flexible adherend has a major influence
on the peel test results.
First, due to the specimen's asymmetry, the failure path is
more likely to occur at the interface close to the flexible adherend than close to the rigid adherend. This was observed
in previous research on similar peel tests, in which a composite flexible member was peeled off from a concrete rigid member [21]. The numerical simulations showed that the
crack propagation along the interface between the composite strip and the adhesive layer yielded the lowest strain energy release rate, and therefore is the most likely failure path.
Unless the adhesion at the interface between the rigid member and the adhesive layer is very weak, the adhesive joint
will most probably fail at the interface between the flexible
member and the adhesive layer.
Secondly, the type of material and the flexible member's
thickness have a major influence on the peel load value.
Previous research showed that, if plastic deformation takes
place in the flexible member during testing, the peel force
includes the force required to deform the flexible adherend
plastically and the decohesive force of the interface [22,23].
The contribution of the thin film's plastic deformation to the
peel load can sometimes be in the order of 100 times higher
than the interface adhesion [24-26].
As described earlier in this paper, even with a similar failure mechanism, the peel loads are significantly different
when using composite or aluminium flexible members. One
can easily observe the typical residual curvature of the thin
flexible aluminium member after testing while this residual
curvature is not observed in the composite flexible member
since this material does not deform plastically.
The use of different flexible adherends, aluminium or CFRP,
is the main cause for the major peel load decrease from the
A-a (or C-a) specimens to the C-c (or A-c) specimens. The
peel load decrease does not mean that the adhesion is worse
on the latter than on the former. One can only compare
the peel loads of different adhesives within the same type
of specimens, especially when peeling off exactly the same
flexible members. The thickness, Young's modulus, yield
strength and ductility of the flexible adherend play a major

60

contribution to the measured peel strength [23].
Effect of the rigid adherend
The rigid adherend has less influence on the peel tests results than the flexible adherend. First, it has less influence
on the failure mechanism than the flexible adherend, as described previously. Secondly, because the type of material
and thickness also have almost no influence on the peel load.
This was proven in the test results when comparing different
rigid adherends. The results are comparable, when considering the same failure mechanism.
Effect of the adhesive
The adhesive also has a major influence on the peel tests
results. When peeling off aluminium sheets, FM 73 has a
higher peel load than EA 9695. The same can be observed
when peeling off the composite, FM 73 also has higher peel
loads than EA 9695. This actually means that if the adhesion
is good between the adhesive and adherends (no AF), and
CF is the major failure mechanism, the comparison between
different adhesives is similar even when peeling off different
materials. EA 9695 peel load is lower than FM 73 peel load,
both when peeling off the aluminium or the composite.

Conclusions
The adhesion properties of bonded composite-to-aluminium joints were evaluated using floating roller peel tests. The
peel tests were performed using two different adhesives and
different adherend lay-ups: composite-to-aluminium, composite-to-composite and aluminium-to-aluminium. The
results show significantly different failure mechanisms and
peel loads.
The study shows that floating roller peel tests are suitable test coupons to assess the adhesion properties of both
composite bonding and composite-to-aluminium bonding.
However, attention should be paid to which results are important to take from the peel tests. The tendency is to put
too much emphasis on the peel load and not enough on the
failure mode, which is actually what determines the adhesion properties of both metal and composite bonding. The
most important result to evaluate the peel performance of
adhesive joints using peel tests is the failure mode. In general terms, CF means good adhesion, and AF means poor
adhesion.
The results also show that the peel load gives a direct indication of the failure mode. However, the order of magnitude of
the peel load is much more affected by the type of material
of the flexible member than by the failure mode. There is a
decrease of almost a factor of 10 in the peel load when peeling off a thin CFRP sheet instead of a thin aluminium sheet,
even if both joints fail cohesively. Therefore, peel loads can
only be compared if using exactly the same type of flexible
adherend (peeling off member). Only then, peel loads can
be used as an indication of adhesion properties. The effect
of the rigid member is less significant.

jec composites magazine / N°137 November - December 2020



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020

Cover
Edito
“We can change the way we envision global shipping overall”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
BUSINESS
Human ressources - Skills requirements in the composite materials sector – the French example
Startup - Make lightness and performance affordable without compromising the environment
Offshore - GWEC: Asia Pacific to become the largest offshore wind market by 2030
MANUFACTURING
Additive manufacturing - The METHOD platform expands to support more materials,applications, and markets
Automation - One-shot manufacturing of cylindrical lattice structures for satellite applications
Recycling - World’s first fully-recycled thermoplastic composite application in aerospace
Additive molding - From large-scale continuous thermoplastic composites to mass production
FEATURE AUTOMOTIVE - Is it possible to do better?
FRP - Fully coupled processstructure analysis for automotive center floor panel
Honeycomb - Composite materials for lighter vehicles
Additive manufacturing - Transforming composite production processes with FDM additive manufacturing
EV - All-composite EV wheel moves to next development phase with pilot production
Security - The world’s fastest armoured car
Natural fibre - Sustainable composite solution for new Toyota LQ concept car
SOLUTIONS
Defence - Drones as wingmen
City - Composites for tomorrow’s cities
Maintenance - Degradation mechanism and maintenance of GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks
TECHNOLOGY
Bonding - Adhesion properties of bonded composite-to-aluminium joints using peel tests
Inside the lab - The University of Southern Queensland - Centre for Future Materials
Method - Weight and cost reduction with double-double laminates
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - “We can change the way we envision global shipping overall”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Human ressources - Skills requirements in the composite materials sector – the French example
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Startup - Make lightness and performance affordable without compromising the environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Offshore - GWEC: Asia Pacific to become the largest offshore wind market by 2030
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive manufacturing - The METHOD platform expands to support more materials,applications, and markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Automation - One-shot manufacturing of cylindrical lattice structures for satellite applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Recycling - World’s first fully-recycled thermoplastic composite application in aerospace
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive molding - From large-scale continuous thermoplastic composites to mass production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - FRP - Fully coupled processstructure analysis for automotive center floor panel
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Honeycomb - Composite materials for lighter vehicles
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive manufacturing - Transforming composite production processes with FDM additive manufacturing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - EV - All-composite EV wheel moves to next development phase with pilot production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Security - The world’s fastest armoured car
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Natural fibre - Sustainable composite solution for new Toyota LQ concept car
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Defence - Drones as wingmen
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - City - Composites for tomorrow’s cities
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Maintenance - Degradation mechanism and maintenance of GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Bonding - Adhesion properties of bonded composite-to-aluminium joints using peel tests
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Inside the lab - The University of Southern Queensland - Centre for Future Materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Method - Weight and cost reduction with double-double laminates
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 68
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