JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 56

TECHNOLOGY bonding
Two epoxy film adhesives were used on the experimental
programme - FM 73 M.060 (Cytec Engineered Materials,
USA) and EA 9695 M.060 (Henkel, Germany). Both film
adhesives were carried on a polyester mat.
The main difference between the two is that the FM 73 film
adhesive is formulated to have excellent performance in metal bonding while EA 9695 is especially suited to composite
bonding. Table 1 shows the metal-to-metal peel performance
of both adhesives and the recommended curing cycles, according to the manufacturers' technical data sheets (TDS).
In both cases, the peel performance was determined as per
the ASTM D3167 standard (floating roller peel tests) [20]
using aluminium alloy sheets.

Fig. 1: Peel test panels

Specimens
Four types of specimens were produced for each adhesive: aluminium- rigid-to-aluminium-flexible (standard), composite-rigid-to-composite-flexible,
aluminium-rigid-to-composite-flexible and composite-rigid-to-aluminium- flexible.
Table 2 shows the nomenclature used to reference the four
types of specimens.
The adherends surfaces were laid up with the adhesive films.
A thin Teflon tape was placed at the beginning of the bond
line. The adhesives were autoclave-cured at 120°C for 60
min, under 3 bars pressure. Each bonded panel was 100 mm
wide by 300 mm long. After the curing process, the panels
were water jet cut into three 25 mm wide specimens. Figure
1 shows a drawing of the bonded panels. The dimensions of
the specimens were measured after cutting. The final adhesive thickness was determined by subtracting from the total
thickness, the thicknesses of the adherends. The average T
standard deviation bond line thickness was 0.11 T 0.05 mm
in the specimens of FM 73 and 0.21 T 0.06 mm in the specimens of EA 9695.

Fig. 2: Floating roller peel test [20]

adherend with approximately 2.4 mm thickness.
A lay-up of two plies (0°/90°) was used to produce the flexible composite adherend with approximately 0.37 mm thickness. After some trials, this lay-up was the best in achieving
enough flexibility for the flexible composite adherend. Only
one ply at 0° lacked transverse support and two plies at 0°
were stiffer and, therefore, more difficult to bend than the
two plies at (0°/90°).
The plies were autoclave-cured at 180°C for 120 minutes under 6 bars. The cured CFRP panels were abraded with sandpaper and then wiped clean with an acetone-soaked cloth.

Experimental procedure
The experimental procedure was based on the standard test
method for floating roller peel tests described in ASTM
D3167 [20]. Testing was carried out using an electromechanic Zwick machine (Zwick, Germany) with a maximum capacity of 20 kN, coupled with a 1 kN load cell. The testing
speed was 125 mm/min. Figure 2 shows the set-up of the
floating roller peel tests. The tests were performed at room

Tab.3: Average peel loads and failure mechanisms.
FM 73
Fave
(N/25 mm)

56

EA 9695
Failure mode

CF (%)

AF (%)

ILFC (%)

Fave
(N/25 mm)

Failure mode
CF (%)

AF (%)

ILFC (%)

A-a

275 + 13

100

-

-

52 + 8

55

45

-

C-a

220 + 10

95

-

5

83 + 2

90

10

-

C-c

20 + 5

50

5

45

14 + 2

80

5

15

A-c

17 + 1

35

5

60

14 + 2

50

20

30

jec composites magazine / N°137 November - December 2020



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020

Cover
Edito
“We can change the way we envision global shipping overall”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
BUSINESS
Human ressources - Skills requirements in the composite materials sector – the French example
Startup - Make lightness and performance affordable without compromising the environment
Offshore - GWEC: Asia Pacific to become the largest offshore wind market by 2030
MANUFACTURING
Additive manufacturing - The METHOD platform expands to support more materials,applications, and markets
Automation - One-shot manufacturing of cylindrical lattice structures for satellite applications
Recycling - World’s first fully-recycled thermoplastic composite application in aerospace
Additive molding - From large-scale continuous thermoplastic composites to mass production
FEATURE AUTOMOTIVE - Is it possible to do better?
FRP - Fully coupled processstructure analysis for automotive center floor panel
Honeycomb - Composite materials for lighter vehicles
Additive manufacturing - Transforming composite production processes with FDM additive manufacturing
EV - All-composite EV wheel moves to next development phase with pilot production
Security - The world’s fastest armoured car
Natural fibre - Sustainable composite solution for new Toyota LQ concept car
SOLUTIONS
Defence - Drones as wingmen
City - Composites for tomorrow’s cities
Maintenance - Degradation mechanism and maintenance of GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks
TECHNOLOGY
Bonding - Adhesion properties of bonded composite-to-aluminium joints using peel tests
Inside the lab - The University of Southern Queensland - Centre for Future Materials
Method - Weight and cost reduction with double-double laminates
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - “We can change the way we envision global shipping overall”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Human ressources - Skills requirements in the composite materials sector – the French example
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Startup - Make lightness and performance affordable without compromising the environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Offshore - GWEC: Asia Pacific to become the largest offshore wind market by 2030
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive manufacturing - The METHOD platform expands to support more materials,applications, and markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Automation - One-shot manufacturing of cylindrical lattice structures for satellite applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Recycling - World’s first fully-recycled thermoplastic composite application in aerospace
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive molding - From large-scale continuous thermoplastic composites to mass production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - FRP - Fully coupled processstructure analysis for automotive center floor panel
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Honeycomb - Composite materials for lighter vehicles
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive manufacturing - Transforming composite production processes with FDM additive manufacturing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - EV - All-composite EV wheel moves to next development phase with pilot production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Security - The world’s fastest armoured car
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Natural fibre - Sustainable composite solution for new Toyota LQ concept car
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Defence - Drones as wingmen
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - City - Composites for tomorrow’s cities
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Maintenance - Degradation mechanism and maintenance of GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Bonding - Adhesion properties of bonded composite-to-aluminium joints using peel tests
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Inside the lab - The University of Southern Queensland - Centre for Future Materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Method - Weight and cost reduction with double-double laminates
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 68
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