JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 53

Degradation mechanism and maintenance of GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks

ceutical liquids. When the stored
chemical is hydrochloric acid, the
GFRP storage tank undergoes a
specific deterioration mechanism.
Researchers at the Tokyo Institute
of Technology and Nihon
University conducted a collaborative analysis of a GFRP drug storage tank that stored hydrochloric
acid, with the following results:
-	 In a 35 wt.% hydrochloric acid
storage tank made of GFRP,
strength reduction is higher
above the liquid level compared to the lower side part
in contact with hydrochloric
acid ten years after installation.
This means that the factor
responsible for the strength
loss is probably hydrochloric
acid vapour (gas) rather than
the hydrochloric acid solution.
-	 An EDS analysis (energy
dispersive X-ray spectroscopy)
of the GFRP used for the
storage tank found that Cl
permeation from hydrochloric
acid was about 3 mm on the
side surface and 5 mm at the
ceiling. Moreover, almost no
calcium was found on the
ceiling. It can be concluded
that while the permeation of
hydrochloric acid into GFRP
was confirmed by the presence
of hydrochloric acid vapour,
permeation progressed further
at the ceiling level, and an elution of the glass fibre's calcium
component was suspected at
that location.

-	 From these observations, it can
be deducted that when the ceiling of the GFRP hydrochloric
acid storage tank was exposed
to hydrochloric acid vapour,
hydrochloric acid permeated
and as a result, calcium was
eluted from the glass fibre
component, resulting in a loss
of interfacial adhesion between
the fibre and resin. This is the
mechanism of GFRP degradation.
These results show that the GFRP
pharmaceutical liquid storage
tank used with hydrochloric acid
exhibits a singular degradation
mechanism, centred on the ceiling, that progresses at the upper
part of the chemical liquid surface.
Accident example
Several accidents have been
declared, proving the relevance of
the above-mentioned degradation
mechanism. According to the
Ministry of Health, Labour and
Welfare in Japan, five casualties
related to FRP hydrochloric acid
storage tanks were reported from
2002 to 2011. The reason was
the collapse of the cylindrical
tank ceiling (Figure 2) caused by
the worker's weight. This type of
accident happens because the deterioration diagnosis is overlooked
when there is no abnormality in
the side or bottom plate.
Accurate degradation diagnosis and repair procedures
FRP Kaji performs the mainte-

Fig. 2: Typical
collapse of
the cylindrical
hydrochloric
acid storage
tank

Fig. 3: Degradation inspection process for GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks

nance, inspection, repair, rework,
and replacement of GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks
according to procedures based on
these specific degradation characteristics. The main features are the
first two steps in Figure 3.
These processes are based on
the assumption that when hydrochloric acid is stored, GFRP
degradation is caused by the
hydrochloric acid gas rather than
the hydrochloric acid solution. A
thorough diagnosis is performed
on the ceiling and the wall surface
above the liquid level to prevent
overlooking of the deteriorated
part. To minimize the risk of
collapse accidents, other safety
measures such as the use of a
scaffolding are taken. From step
3 onward, the process is the same
as for the standard GFRP pharmaceutical liquid storage tank.
Conclusion
Some of the company's experienced engineers working on
GFRP chemical storage tanks
expressed their point of view:
"The accident of the top plate
collapsing when the storage liquid
is hydrochloric acid is an event

N°137 November - December 2020

that is not understandable, and
no matter how much the material
selection is mistaken, a degradation
to the point of collapse is unthinkable." Furthermore, based on the
chemical industry's general idea
that "strength cannot be guaranteed
due to incorrect design thickness or
thickness setting during manufacturing", the common solution to
prevent accidents was to increase
the layer thickness that included
the ceiling.
Now that the degradation mechanism of GFRP hydrochloric
acid storage tanks is becoming
clear, FRP Kaji believes that it is
essential to perform the degradation diagnosis based on accurate
technical knowledge, and repair,
rework, and replacement. Even
for products with a long history
of application, such as FRP pharmaceutical liquid storage tanks,
the fact remains that accidents are
constant because experience is too
much valued. The company strives
to communicate this knowledge
to help eradicate these risks.
More information:
https://frpkaji.co.jp

/ jec composites magazine

53


https://frpkaji.co.jp

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020

Cover
Edito
“We can change the way we envision global shipping overall”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
BUSINESS
Human ressources - Skills requirements in the composite materials sector – the French example
Startup - Make lightness and performance affordable without compromising the environment
Offshore - GWEC: Asia Pacific to become the largest offshore wind market by 2030
MANUFACTURING
Additive manufacturing - The METHOD platform expands to support more materials,applications, and markets
Automation - One-shot manufacturing of cylindrical lattice structures for satellite applications
Recycling - World’s first fully-recycled thermoplastic composite application in aerospace
Additive molding - From large-scale continuous thermoplastic composites to mass production
FEATURE AUTOMOTIVE - Is it possible to do better?
FRP - Fully coupled processstructure analysis for automotive center floor panel
Honeycomb - Composite materials for lighter vehicles
Additive manufacturing - Transforming composite production processes with FDM additive manufacturing
EV - All-composite EV wheel moves to next development phase with pilot production
Security - The world’s fastest armoured car
Natural fibre - Sustainable composite solution for new Toyota LQ concept car
SOLUTIONS
Defence - Drones as wingmen
City - Composites for tomorrow’s cities
Maintenance - Degradation mechanism and maintenance of GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks
TECHNOLOGY
Bonding - Adhesion properties of bonded composite-to-aluminium joints using peel tests
Inside the lab - The University of Southern Queensland - Centre for Future Materials
Method - Weight and cost reduction with double-double laminates
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - “We can change the way we envision global shipping overall”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Human ressources - Skills requirements in the composite materials sector – the French example
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Startup - Make lightness and performance affordable without compromising the environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Offshore - GWEC: Asia Pacific to become the largest offshore wind market by 2030
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive manufacturing - The METHOD platform expands to support more materials,applications, and markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Automation - One-shot manufacturing of cylindrical lattice structures for satellite applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Recycling - World’s first fully-recycled thermoplastic composite application in aerospace
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive molding - From large-scale continuous thermoplastic composites to mass production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - FRP - Fully coupled processstructure analysis for automotive center floor panel
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Honeycomb - Composite materials for lighter vehicles
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive manufacturing - Transforming composite production processes with FDM additive manufacturing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - EV - All-composite EV wheel moves to next development phase with pilot production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Security - The world’s fastest armoured car
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Natural fibre - Sustainable composite solution for new Toyota LQ concept car
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Defence - Drones as wingmen
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - City - Composites for tomorrow’s cities
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Maintenance - Degradation mechanism and maintenance of GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Bonding - Adhesion properties of bonded composite-to-aluminium joints using peel tests
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Inside the lab - The University of Southern Queensland - Centre for Future Materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Method - Weight and cost reduction with double-double laminates
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 68
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