JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 52

SOLUTlONS maintenance

Degradation mechanism and maintenance
of GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks

Masashi Sato,
CTO
FRP Kaji Co., Ltd.

D

ue to their high chemical and
water resistance, glass fibre-reinforced plastics (GFRP) have
been used in the chemical industry for a
long time as a storage tank material for
chemicals such as acids.
However, due to the strong oxidizing power
of hydrochloric acid, even GFRP materials
suffer from degradation, so that periodic
deterioration diagnosis, repair, and rework
are required. Appropriate maintenance and

GFRP chemical degradation as a storage tank by storing hydrochloric acid shows very unique mechanism.
Proper diagnosis of GFRP deterioration, and the repair and
rework methods based on the technical understanding regarding this mechanism will be quite important for chemical plant
safety.

inspection are essential in the chemical
industry to ensure longer equipment life.
Inappropriate degradation diagnoses can
result in collapse accidents when operating
these tanks. This is mainly due to the lack of
understanding of GFRP chemical degradation when storing hydrochloric acid, and the
lack of technical knowledge that would allow
a different approach than with other acids. In
this paper, FRP Kaji describes the mechanism
and diagnosis of GFRP deterioration, and

Fig. 1: Normal degradation inspection process for GFRP chemical storage tanks

52

jec composites magazine / N°137 November - December 2020

the repair and rework methods based on the
results, comparing hydrochloric acid with
other acids.
Usual degradation diagnosis
and repair procedure
In a first step, FRP Kaji performs a visual
inspection to identify and record the places
with cracks or peeling caused by chemical deterioration. Secondly, the company measures
the thickness of the GFRP wall and checks it
against the drawing to determine the amount
of GFRP thinning due to the deterioration.
Hardness is also measured at locations where
a deterioration is suspected. The degradation
diagnosis is not limited to the tank housing.
As a fourth step, the number and shape of the
brackets supporting the GFRP storage tank
are checked in terms of seismic resistance. In
step five, a degradation inspection report is
created, describing the places where the GFRP
chemical storage tank needs to be repaired,
reworked, or replaced. Step 6 is the repair process, based on the report. Repair and rework
are carried out by removing the deteriorated
GFRP material and then stacking it over
the new GFRP material (overlay). Finally, a
rework/repair report is created and submitted,
completing the procedure (Figure 1).
Hydrochloric acid storage
The degradation diagnosis, repair and replacement procedures are suitable for standard
GFRP tanks used for the storage of pharma-



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020

Cover
Edito
“We can change the way we envision global shipping overall”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
BUSINESS
Human ressources - Skills requirements in the composite materials sector – the French example
Startup - Make lightness and performance affordable without compromising the environment
Offshore - GWEC: Asia Pacific to become the largest offshore wind market by 2030
MANUFACTURING
Additive manufacturing - The METHOD platform expands to support more materials,applications, and markets
Automation - One-shot manufacturing of cylindrical lattice structures for satellite applications
Recycling - World’s first fully-recycled thermoplastic composite application in aerospace
Additive molding - From large-scale continuous thermoplastic composites to mass production
FEATURE AUTOMOTIVE - Is it possible to do better?
FRP - Fully coupled processstructure analysis for automotive center floor panel
Honeycomb - Composite materials for lighter vehicles
Additive manufacturing - Transforming composite production processes with FDM additive manufacturing
EV - All-composite EV wheel moves to next development phase with pilot production
Security - The world’s fastest armoured car
Natural fibre - Sustainable composite solution for new Toyota LQ concept car
SOLUTIONS
Defence - Drones as wingmen
City - Composites for tomorrow’s cities
Maintenance - Degradation mechanism and maintenance of GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks
TECHNOLOGY
Bonding - Adhesion properties of bonded composite-to-aluminium joints using peel tests
Inside the lab - The University of Southern Queensland - Centre for Future Materials
Method - Weight and cost reduction with double-double laminates
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - “We can change the way we envision global shipping overall”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Human ressources - Skills requirements in the composite materials sector – the French example
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Startup - Make lightness and performance affordable without compromising the environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Offshore - GWEC: Asia Pacific to become the largest offshore wind market by 2030
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive manufacturing - The METHOD platform expands to support more materials,applications, and markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Automation - One-shot manufacturing of cylindrical lattice structures for satellite applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Recycling - World’s first fully-recycled thermoplastic composite application in aerospace
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive molding - From large-scale continuous thermoplastic composites to mass production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - FRP - Fully coupled processstructure analysis for automotive center floor panel
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Honeycomb - Composite materials for lighter vehicles
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Additive manufacturing - Transforming composite production processes with FDM additive manufacturing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - EV - All-composite EV wheel moves to next development phase with pilot production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Security - The world’s fastest armoured car
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Natural fibre - Sustainable composite solution for new Toyota LQ concept car
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Defence - Drones as wingmen
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - City - Composites for tomorrow’s cities
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Maintenance - Degradation mechanism and maintenance of GFRP hydrochloric acid storage tanks
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Bonding - Adhesion properties of bonded composite-to-aluminium joints using peel tests
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Inside the lab - The University of Southern Queensland - Centre for Future Materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Method - Weight and cost reduction with double-double laminates
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #137 - November/December 2020 - 68
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