JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 60

TECHNOLOGY repair

Fig. 1: Estimation of the CF filaments visible on the surface of a 12k roving

to waste. Furthermore, CFRP components are heavily oversized
due to defects that cannot be detected and for safety reasons. The
safety factors for standard components range from j=1.5 [3] to j=3
for safety-critical components. This is the direct consequence of
defects in the carbon fibre roving caused during processing that
cannot be detected with the current state of the art. Thus, this contributes to the relatively high production costs of CFRP components. One approach to detect hidden filament breaks by optical
sensor technology is to use destructive testing methods. This also
allows the inside of the CF roving to be made optically accessible.
However, the disadvantages of destructive testing methods, such
as the waste of cost-intensive carbon material and the fact that they
cannot be used in inline process monitoring, oppose this approach.

Aim and approach
The aim of the EddySCARF research project is to develop and use
a stand-alone inline filament breakage sensor based on the eddy
current (EC) physical functional principle (Suragus GmbH). The
EC sensor is intended to achieve 100% inline process monitoring
of carbon fibre-based manufacturing processes. The project will
be carried out using the example of structural components in the
aerospace industry for quality-controlled process monitoring and
control.
The sensor system can be used both by carbon fibre manufacturers (Teijin Europe GmbH) and processors (Hightex
Verstärkungsstrukturen GmbH or Saertex GmbH & Co. KG). For
carbon fibre manufacturers, quality monitoring by means of eddy
current is intended to enable a 100% inspection of outgoing goods.
For carbon fibre processors, the aim is to quantify fibre damage
along their process chain using eddy current so that the various
sub-processes can be optimised and a 100% inspection of incoming goods is made possible. Figure 2 shows potential applications
of the eddy current sensor system at carbon fibre manufacturers
and processors.
The measuring system can reduce production waste and improve
material usage. As a result, the lightweight construction potential
of the carbon material is exploited to a greater extent. The sensor's
application possibilities are broadly diversified due to its flexible
use along the CFRP process chain by both manufacturers and processors.

Solution
First, the requirements of all project partners for the eddy current
sensor system are defined. For this purpose, the requirements of
carbon fibre manufacturers, represented in the research project
by the Teijin company, as well as those of carbon fibre processors,

60

Fig. 2: Potential applications of the eddy current sensor in
a) carbon fibre production and b) processing

Fig. 3: Schematic diagram of the experimental setup at the Institute of Textiltechnik
of RWTH Aachen University for testing the eddy current sensor on a laboratory scale

represented by Hightex and Saertex, are taken into account. A test
bench for validating the eddy current sensor was developed, manufactured and commissioned at the Institute of Textile Technology.
On the test bench, artificial defects similar to those found during
production and processing can be inserted into a carbon fibre and
measured. A so called "damaging module" will be developed and
implemented in the test bench, allowing a reproducible application of the defects so that the eddy current sensor can be tested
on a laboratory scale. Figure 3 shows a schematic representation
of the tribological test bench on which the eddy current sensor is
tested. On the test bench (Figure 3), a carbon fibre roving is measured via optical filament breakage sensors to quantify the superficial degree of damage before and after contact with the damaging
module. Via the damaging module, defects are automatically and
reproducibly inserted into the roving and subsequently detected
with the eddy current sensor. By automating the damaging module, both the location and type of the defect are known, so that it
can be correlated with the measurement signal of the eddy current
signal and compared with the data of the optical filament breakage sensors. The approaches pursued in the project to evaluate the
eddy current signal use both classical measurement value analysis
and machine learning algorithms using neural networks. The eddy
current sensor is developed in an agile and iterative way, following the four stages of a Deming cycle (Figure 4). First, the sensor prototype is designed (1. Plan) and manufactured (2. Do) by
Suragus. Then, the sensor is validated at the laboratory scale at the
Institute of Textile Technology and with the research partners under real production conditions in an industrial environment. The
sensor will be used by the different project partners in different
processes. Hightex implements the sensor system in the tailored
fibre placement process, Saertex in scrim production for the quali-

jec composites magazine / N°136 September - October 2020



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020

Cover
Edito
“We can change the way we envision global shipping overall”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
BUSINESS
Reinforcement - Natural-fibre composites: an overview
Startup - When 3D printing meets sustainability
China - Xinzhou bets on the bamboo-based composites industry
MANUFACTURING
Wind - lnnovation in wind power through multi-process-capable systems
Automation - Higher production capacity thanks to automated manufacturing
FEATURE Sustainability - The path has been plotted
Recycling ecosystem - Composites recycling: in search of the circular economy
Mobility - A new generation of recycled composite materials for sustainable mobility
Preimpregnated textile - Healable composites to improve circularity
Process - New trends in composites and plastics recycling
Raw materials - Innovative composites made from up to 92% reclaimed materials
Construction - Biocomposites and automation: a sustainable future for the building industry
Ressources - Waste-free composite wheel production
Wind energy - From bottle to blade
Durable composites - Upcycling plastic bottles into value-added composite applications
Matrix - Novel thermoset composites for more competitive and sustainable industries
SOLUTIONS
Aerospace - Slinging rockets into space
Aerospace - Composites push back the final frontier
Railway - Composite overhead line catenary system for light rail
TECHNOLOGY
Repair - Developing an eddy current-based sensor system for quality assurance of carbon fibres
Inside the lab - Advanced Composite Materials Facility University of Southampton
Resin - Development of new type of plastics: Polypropylene 2.0
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - “We can change the way we envision global shipping overall”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Reinforcement - Natural-fibre composites: an overview
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Startup - When 3D printing meets sustainability
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - China - Xinzhou bets on the bamboo-based composites industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Wind - lnnovation in wind power through multi-process-capable systems
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Automation - Higher production capacity thanks to automated manufacturing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Recycling ecosystem - Composites recycling: in search of the circular economy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Mobility - A new generation of recycled composite materials for sustainable mobility
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Preimpregnated textile - Healable composites to improve circularity
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Process - New trends in composites and plastics recycling
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Raw materials - Innovative composites made from up to 92% reclaimed materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Construction - Biocomposites and automation: a sustainable future for the building industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Ressources - Waste-free composite wheel production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Wind energy - From bottle to blade
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Durable composites - Upcycling plastic bottles into value-added composite applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Matrix - Novel thermoset composites for more competitive and sustainable industries
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Aerospace - Slinging rockets into space
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Aerospace - Composites push back the final frontier
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Railway - Composite overhead line catenary system for light rail
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Repair - Developing an eddy current-based sensor system for quality assurance of carbon fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Inside the lab - Advanced Composite Materials Facility University of Southampton
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Resin - Development of new type of plastics: Polypropylene 2.0
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #136 - September/October 2020 - 68
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