JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 65

Optimization approach for designing composite components

This approach has two main disadvantages:
-	 The prototype could meet the minimum requirements even
if the experimental results diverge from the calculations. This
may be due to the use of excessively conservative safety factors
or an incorrect model. This makes it difficult to identify whether the model is representative or not.
-	 The components produced according to this strategy show a
low cost-performance ratio since they are not optimized.
Moreover, with the traditional approach, it is not possible to
find an optimized product later without redoing the whole project from the beginning stage (dashed line in Figure 1).

The optimization design approach
Instead, using the optimization approach makes it possible to
find the best design to meet the minimum requirements while
reducing costs or to find the best design to maximize performance. Unlike the traditional approach, if the prototype does
not meet the requirements, the model can be tuned to match
the experimental results. When all the requirements are met,
the product is fully optimized.
As can be deduced from Figure 1, if the creation time of a parametric model (generally more complex than a standard one)
plus the optimization time plus the model's tuning time is less
than the time needed to develop a standard model plus the calculation time plus the modification time, the optimization approach is always preferable. This approach may be
preferable even if the time required is greater since the cost savings can be substantial on a large number of products.
This method can also be useful to produce a small batch of very
expensive products. In this case, making attempts or following
a traditional design approach is too risky for the company since
each prototype is very expensive.
Figure 2 shows an example of a product developed by Reglass
HT (Minerbio (BO), Italy) that was optimized in the initial design stage to minimize the stresses caused by mechanical loads
in the slot holes and to reduce the residual thermal stresses due
to the curing cycle (thermal loads).
In this case, the fixed parameters of the model were:
-	 Object length and external diameter;
-	 Type of loads and amplitude.

Fig. 2: Example of a product made with an optimization approach

-	 Instead, the parameters were:
-	 Geometry (internal diameter, slot hole radius, mutual distance
of the slot holes, etc.);
-	 Stacking sequence and materials.
The object's function was to reduce the product cost related to
the materials while keeping a certain failure index as a boundary
condition.

Conclusions
With isotropic materials (metals), the optimization strategy has
been used in the design stage for years. In this case, the only parameters that can be optimized usually concern geometry, such
as topological optimization.
With composite materials, the optimization approach is a more
general case of the strategy used in isotropic materials. The only
things that change are the presence of new variables/parameters such as the stacking sequence and the type of materials
used. This is due to the orthotropy of fibre-reinforced composite materials.
These new variables create much more complex models, problems and simulations, but at the same time open the doors to
new solutions impossible to find with common materials and
with classic design approaches.
The optimization design approach will soon become the new
reference strategy for companies that produce composite objects, for any application including sports, aerospace and automotive.

N°135 July - August 2020

More information:
https://www.marcopovolo.it/

/ jec composites magazine

65


https://www.marcopovolo.it/ http://www.jeccomposites.com/mediakit

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020

Cover
Edito
“We include composite materials in order to offer the most efficient protection”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
BUSINESS
China - What is the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on chemical groups in China?
Startup - UBQ introduces the greenest thermoplastic material
Finance - Finding funding
MANUFACTURING
Simulation - Virtual design of a mediacal auto-injection
Method - The importance of FRP process specifications
FEATURE AERONAUTICS - Can composites help restart activity?
- Additive manufacturing: Printing continuous carbon fibre in true 3D
- Thermoplastics: A thermoplastic T-profile with effective lay-up in one shot
- Maintenance: Automated adaptive machining of aircraft composite structures
- OOA: Out-of-autoclave manufacturing processes for composite aerostructures
- Process: Overmoulded interfaces for composite aircraft parts
- Bonding: The Bondline Control Technology
- Interview: “Don’t miss the shift to Green and the chance to make a positive impact on the environment!”
- Testimonials: Aeronautics: now what?
- Natural fibre: A satellite panel reinforced with natural fibres for cleaner space exploration
SOLUTIONS
Autonomous human flight - Sky is no limit for inventors
Building & construction - Building reality with composites
Aerospace - Lightweight liner-less carbon composite subscale cryotank
TECHNOLOGY
Design - Developing CFRP components for machine tools
Inside the lab - Advanced Composites Laboratory,c Texas State University
FEA - Optimization approach for designing composite components
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - “We include composite materials in order to offer the most efficient protection”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - China - What is the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on chemical groups in China?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Startup - UBQ introduces the greenest thermoplastic material
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Finance - Finding funding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Simulation - Virtual design of a mediacal auto-injection
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Method - The importance of FRP process specifications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Additive manufacturing: Printing continuous carbon fibre in true 3D
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Thermoplastics: A thermoplastic T-profile with effective lay-up in one shot
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Maintenance: Automated adaptive machining of aircraft composite structures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - OOA: Out-of-autoclave manufacturing processes for composite aerostructures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Process: Overmoulded interfaces for composite aircraft parts
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Bonding: The Bondline Control Technology
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Interview: “Don’t miss the shift to Green and the chance to make a positive impact on the environment!”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Testimonials: Aeronautics: now what?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Natural fibre: A satellite panel reinforced with natural fibres for cleaner space exploration
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Autonomous human flight - Sky is no limit for inventors
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Building & construction - Building reality with composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Aerospace - Lightweight liner-less carbon composite subscale cryotank
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Design - Developing CFRP components for machine tools
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Inside the lab - Advanced Composites Laboratory,c Texas State University
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - FEA - Optimization approach for designing composite components
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 68
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