JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 38

FEATURE process

Fig.3: Double
cantilever beam test

Fig. 4: COGIT's
specifically-designed
overmoulded G1c coupon (raw materials:
carbon/PEKK)
Tab.1:Left: Taguchi L4 table with the range of selected parameters. Right: experimental results for four
combinations of overmoulded coupons
Fig. 5: Results of combination [260°C; 400°C; 1200 bar]

Mould T°C

Injection T°C

Injection
Pressure

1

235

380

700

236

232

218

197

227

222

2

235

400

1200

453

591

497

554

590

537

3

260

380

1200

574

661

563

749

668

643

4

260

400

700

236

236

236

236

743

783

Average

Characterization test
for an overmoulded interface
As no specific test exists for overmoulded
interfaces, the choice has to rely on standards
dealing with bonding joints and interlaminar
toughness. The standard mechanical test
characterizes a cohesive interface (see Figure
3), the end notched flexural test (ENF)
provides shear values, whereas the double
cantilever beam test and the T peel test
provide normal values.

Specific coupon
To manufacture the coupon, the mould was
placed on a stamping press coupled with an
injection unit. The main press features were:
65 tons and a table that heats up to 450°C.
For injection, a 45cc injection screw that can
be heated up to 420°C with a pressure up to
2200 bar was used.
This tool can be used to investigate all
types of composites and polymers, such
as PA, PPS, PEI, PEEK and PEKK, with
or without fibres. In this study, a carbon/
PEKK composite was overmoulded with
carbon fibre-reinforced PEKK (ARKEMA
8010C30).

Composites choice
According to the ASTM D5528 and ASTM
D6671 standards, concerning Mode I and
Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness,
the coupon (see Figure 4) was adjusted to
balance the behaviour of two different raw
materials on each side of the interface. As
strength limits and moduli were different,
the thickness was the parameter to customize. Thus, a specific mould was designed to
produce the coupon.

Investigation of process parameters
The main aim was to produce enough energy
at the interface to melt the composite surface,
so that the polymer molecule can migrate
between the just-injected polymer and the
polymer impregnated in the composite. A
preliminary study of influential physical phenomena was used to select the parameters to
be investigated in the study.
The following parameters and range were
selected: mould temperature, 235°C and

tigated. Then, the G1c and G2c parameters
were determined so as to feed values into the
stress analysis.

38

Measurement of first failure (N)

jec composites magazine / N°135 July - August 2020

Fig. 6: Results of combination [235°C; 380°C; 700 bar]

260°C; screw temperature, 380°C and
400°C; and injection pressure, 700 bar and
1200 bar. Other parameters such as injection
speed and holding pressure were fixed.
Based on the Taguchi methods, the experiments were designed to reduce the number
of parameter combinations. A Taguchi L4
table proposes three parameters at two levels.
The post-treatment of the Mode I test focused
on the first failure strength (in Newtons) to
simplify the analysis. The fracture energy was
also achieved, but is not discussed here. The
two charts, force versus displacement with
a normalized scale, show the worst and the
best results when the combination of parameters [mould T°C; injection T°C; injection
pressure] is respectively [235°C; 380°C; 700
bar] (see Figure 5) and [260°C; 400°C; 1200
bar] (see Table 1).
The results obtained during the experimental



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020

Cover
Edito
“We include composite materials in order to offer the most efficient protection”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
BUSINESS
China - What is the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on chemical groups in China?
Startup - UBQ introduces the greenest thermoplastic material
Finance - Finding funding
MANUFACTURING
Simulation - Virtual design of a mediacal auto-injection
Method - The importance of FRP process specifications
FEATURE AERONAUTICS - Can composites help restart activity?
- Additive manufacturing: Printing continuous carbon fibre in true 3D
- Thermoplastics: A thermoplastic T-profile with effective lay-up in one shot
- Maintenance: Automated adaptive machining of aircraft composite structures
- OOA: Out-of-autoclave manufacturing processes for composite aerostructures
- Process: Overmoulded interfaces for composite aircraft parts
- Bonding: The Bondline Control Technology
- Interview: “Don’t miss the shift to Green and the chance to make a positive impact on the environment!”
- Testimonials: Aeronautics: now what?
- Natural fibre: A satellite panel reinforced with natural fibres for cleaner space exploration
SOLUTIONS
Autonomous human flight - Sky is no limit for inventors
Building & construction - Building reality with composites
Aerospace - Lightweight liner-less carbon composite subscale cryotank
TECHNOLOGY
Design - Developing CFRP components for machine tools
Inside the lab - Advanced Composites Laboratory,c Texas State University
FEA - Optimization approach for designing composite components
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - “We include composite materials in order to offer the most efficient protection”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - China - What is the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on chemical groups in China?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Startup - UBQ introduces the greenest thermoplastic material
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Finance - Finding funding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Simulation - Virtual design of a mediacal auto-injection
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Method - The importance of FRP process specifications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Additive manufacturing: Printing continuous carbon fibre in true 3D
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Thermoplastics: A thermoplastic T-profile with effective lay-up in one shot
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Maintenance: Automated adaptive machining of aircraft composite structures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - OOA: Out-of-autoclave manufacturing processes for composite aerostructures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Process: Overmoulded interfaces for composite aircraft parts
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Bonding: The Bondline Control Technology
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Interview: “Don’t miss the shift to Green and the chance to make a positive impact on the environment!”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Testimonials: Aeronautics: now what?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - - Natural fibre: A satellite panel reinforced with natural fibres for cleaner space exploration
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Autonomous human flight - Sky is no limit for inventors
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Building & construction - Building reality with composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Aerospace - Lightweight liner-less carbon composite subscale cryotank
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Design - Developing CFRP components for machine tools
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Inside the lab - Advanced Composites Laboratory,c Texas State University
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - FEA - Optimization approach for designing composite components
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #135 - July/August 2020 - 68
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