JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 35

lnfused primary structures: the gateway to tomorrow's air mobility

Alice Wing at Paris Airshow 2019. The full composite
structure was manufactured using infusion technology.

and drawbacks. The first one has a controlled
component dosage and cures at a higher temperature, hence leaving time for the infusion
to complete (but requiring a subsequent
oven cure). However, a relatively fast cure at
room temperature may be desired in some
scenarios. Two-component systems would be
then more adequate, ensuring the cure cycle
matches the infusion timeframe set-up.
This brings us to what actually makes infusion
technologies more complex than typical
autoclave compaction. "To ensure the built
quality and consistency of an aerospace part
made by infusion, a controlled and stable
process is definitely necessary. This requires some
work but can be achieved. Resin manufacturers
can guarantee a certain pot life and viscosity
over time and temperature, tooling manufacturers can make moulds that have a uniform
temperature over the entire dimension within a
narrow range, and NCF producers can ensure a
consistent permeability of the fabrics" explains
Helge Haberkern, Technical Marketing Asia
at Saertex. Combined with the pre-existing
autoclave equipment costs, the need to revisit
assembly lines and extra effort to tackle the
certification of non-prepreg parts, aerospace
infusion methods are still largely on a conceptual phase.
However, do not be mistaken: major players
are definitely looking at infusion and the alluring improvements it promises (production
rate increase, manufacturing of integrated
structures, reduced assembly time, etc.).
Infusion might not be the perfect production
process for every aerospace part but it is certainly the best choice for some parts because of its
advantages, including unlimited part size, low
CAPEX, long shelf life of materials and reduced
transportation and storage costs compared
with prepregs, just to name a few" adds Mr
Haberkern. For small and secondary struc-

tural parts, use cases of infusion are numerous
(e.g. A400M cargo door, A380 flap track
components, B787 and A350 rear pressure
bulkheads). Larger projects are also ongoing,
most notably with the current development
of Russian manufacturer Irkut and its MC-21
wings.

higher laminate thicknesses. Nevertheless,
a vacuum infusion carried out correctly will
yield homogeneous and accurate fibre volume
fractions (with ±1% tolerance) and reach
void content values as low as 0.2%, ten times
below the aforementioned threshold of the
aerospace industry.

Getting out of the autoclave
to serve future air transportation
If moving out of the autoclave is still challenging for well-established traditional aerospace
companies, it might on the contrary be of the
utmost interest for the rising market of urban
air mobility (UAM). UAM concepts are
exponentially raising awareness, and a large
number of start-ups and small companies
came up with prototypes and concepts. These
range from quad- and multi-copter type
vehicles to aircraft with pivotable propulsion
systems. Most of them have in common
that their structure differs from a traditional
aircraft and that they are considerably smaller,
carrying only up to a dozen passengers.
A major advantage resulting from infusion
techniques is the integrated manufacturing of
complex structures, e.g. skins with their stiffeners, hence reducing part count, assembly steps
and the need for fastened interfaces (which
require substantial certification effort). Aside
from these structural considerations, UAM
start-ups have another asset: they are not
bound to using prepreg materials and processes as they do not have autoclave investments
that need to be amortised. Moreover, using
infusion technologies implicates a much lower
investment barrier to start manufacturing the
first parts, especially within the prototype
phase. While infusion technologies, especially
vacuum infusion, require a lower investment
for equipment, it is even more crucial to fully
understand the process and invest in proper
process development. Contrary to using
prepreg materials, where a low void content
and high fibre volume fraction already exist in
the raw material, for infusion processes these
properties strongly depend on the process
implementation. Of particular importance
are the position and number of inlets, their
opening sequence and the exact positioning of
flow media. There is otherwise a risk of higher
void contents or even dry areas, especially
for larger parts with complex geometries and

Automation and streamlining
As UAM companies are aiming to replace traditional car, train or bus transportation, they
are also aiming for much higher quantities
compared to the traditional aviation industry.
Over 1000 units per year can be considered
the standard. These numbers require looking
at manufacturing technologies with a high
level of automation such as those encountered
in the automotive industry, without which
the required production rates could not
be achieved. For fibre placement, there are
several automated technologies available such
as dry AFP, tailored fibre placement (TFP)
or braiding. These technologies provide high
potential for a fully-automated production
process, as dry fibres can be easily steered to
achieve complex preforms.
Infusion technology, especially vacuum-assisted infusion processes such as the Vacuum
Assisted Process (VAP®), still requires a
considerable amount of manual work. In the
traditional process set-up, the membrane and
vacuum bag cannot be positioned by an automated process. Some automation approaches
have been developed and successfully tested
on the lab scale, but are not yet implemented
into serial production. An alternative can be
found in the resin transfer moulding (RTM)
process, but this requires a more elaborate
mould design and larger investments in tools
and injection units. Considering the smaller
sizes of UAM structures and the production
rates targeted, they are more suited for an
RTM process compared to the larger components of traditional aircraft.
Equally important is the streamlining of
the production lines. Integrated infusion
techniques in a mass-production context
will require to rethink the entire production
line: material input, preform, process,
non-destructive inspection but also efficient
transportation between production stations
(such as vacuum-assisted robotised transfer
of preforms) and proper quality assurance

N°133 March - April 2020

/ jec composites magazine

35



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020

Cover
Edito
“For the past 130 years, every aspect of tire performance has been improved, except for one”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
Aerospace
BUSINESS
Strategy - Selling your business, Part 1: maximizing value on both sides of the deal
Trends - Automotive: what will be tomorrow’s reality?
Boatbuilding - Maritime and shipbuilding sector: a niche market with growth potential
China - China’s glass fibre industry is entering a new cycle
MANUFACTURING
Fabrics - GaplessWeave process for higher-quality carbon fibre fabrics
Electric vehicle - The potential of epoxy SMC in electro-mobility battery systems
Simulation - New updates for the Composite Materials Module’s users
Aerospace - lnfused primary structures: the gateway to tomorrow’s air mobility
Aircraft interiors - New core filler for aircraft interiors: reduced material, weight and manufacturing costs
Sustainability - Eco Impact Calculator, a Life Cycle Assessment tool for the composites industry
PREVIEW JEC WORLD 2020
- EDUCATION & KNOWLEDGE
- MARKET OVERVIEW / Fact & figures
- AT THE FOREFRONT IN JEC WORLD 2020
- VIEW FROM THE TOP
- INNOVATION
- SUSTAINABILITY
- END-USE MARKETS
- PROCESS & AUTOMATION
- INTERNATIONAL
SOLUTIONS
Book - Composites in infrastructure
Construction - Composites joining science and religion
Urban equipment - Composite infrastructure products: a new alternative for the construction industry
Aeronautics - To new horizons, with composites
Aeronautics - Thermoplastic composite bracket for aircraft engines
Off shore wind energy - Taming the offshore winds
Biocomposites - Where are natural fibre composites heading?
Natural fibres - The challenges of building large structures from flax fibre composite
TECHNOLOGY
Resin - Properties and composite applications of nanocalcitemodified epoxies
Inside the lab - Architected Material and Structures (AMS), a team from Navier Laboratory (Ecole des Ponts ParisTech/IFSTTAR/CNRS)
FMEL - Fibre-metal elastomer laminates – Lightweight components with superior damping characteristics
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - CF
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - CB
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - “For the past 130 years, every aspect of tire performance has been improved, except for one”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aerospace
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Strategy - Selling your business, Part 1: maximizing value on both sides of the deal
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Trends - Automotive: what will be tomorrow’s reality?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Boatbuilding - Maritime and shipbuilding sector: a niche market with growth potential
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - China - China’s glass fibre industry is entering a new cycle
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Fabrics - GaplessWeave process for higher-quality carbon fibre fabrics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Electric vehicle - The potential of epoxy SMC in electro-mobility battery systems
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Simulation - New updates for the Composite Materials Module’s users
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aerospace - lnfused primary structures: the gateway to tomorrow’s air mobility
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aircraft interiors - New core filler for aircraft interiors: reduced material, weight and manufacturing costs
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Sustainability - Eco Impact Calculator, a Life Cycle Assessment tool for the composites industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - EDUCATION & KNOWLEDGE
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - MARKET OVERVIEW / Fact & figures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - AT THE FOREFRONT IN JEC WORLD 2020
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - VIEW FROM THE TOP
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - INNOVATION
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 60
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 63
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 69
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - SUSTAINABILITY
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 71
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - END-USE MARKETS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 73
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 74
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 75
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 76
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 77
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 78
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 79
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - PROCESS & AUTOMATION
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 81
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 82
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 83
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 84
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 85
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 86
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 89
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 90
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - INTERNATIONAL
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 92
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 93
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 94
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 113
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 114
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Book - Composites in infrastructure
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 116
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 117
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Construction - Composites joining science and religion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 119
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 120
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 121
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Urban equipment - Composite infrastructure products: a new alternative for the construction industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 123
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aeronautics - To new horizons, with composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 125
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 126
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aeronautics - Thermoplastic composite bracket for aircraft engines
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 128
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Off shore wind energy - Taming the offshore winds
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 130
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 131
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 132
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Biocomposites - Where are natural fibre composites heading?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 134
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 135
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Natural fibres - The challenges of building large structures from flax fibre composite
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 137
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 138
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Resin - Properties and composite applications of nanocalcitemodified epoxies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 140
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 141
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 142
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 143
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 146
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 147
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Inside the lab - Architected Material and Structures (AMS), a team from Navier Laboratory (Ecole des Ponts ParisTech/IFSTTAR/CNRS)
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 149
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 150
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - FMEL - Fibre-metal elastomer laminates – Lightweight components with superior damping characteristics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 152
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 153
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Advertisers
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