JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 143

Properties and composite applications of nanocalcite-modified epoxies

the stress-strain hysteresis loops recorded periodically during fatigue
loading.
The 0° tensile fatigue performance was also dramatically improved,
with fatigue life improvements of greater than 10 times the life of the
control material. Laminate stiffness was greatly increased over the
entire life for all stress levels tested (Figure 5). Peak strain levels were
significantly lower than for the control material at comparable stress
levels.

Light-weighting carbon fibre composites
with nano-enhanced resins
The improvements demonstrated in fibre-reinforced systems
through the use of nanocalcite resins can be utilized in real-world
applications, providing part designers unique opportunities to lightweight composite structures. Examples of composite applications
featuring nanocalcite resins are highlighted, including lightweight,
high-performance driveshafts, and composite overwrapped pressure
vessels. In each of these examples, the enhanced mechanical properties developed through the use of nanocalcite matrix resins allow
composite designers options to reduce wall thicknesses and eliminate carbon fibre in the redesigned composite parts.
Torsional strength of filament-wound drive shafts
Previous work explored the impact of a high matrix modulus on the
design and performance of filament-wound drive shafts [6, 7]. In that
study, high modulus was achieved by incorporating high loadings of
surface-functionalized nanosilica into a low-viscosity epoxy winding
formulation. Increased lamina transverse and shear stiffnesses were
shown by calculation and experiment to translate into increased
shaft longitudinal and hoop stiffnesses for a fixed winding pattern
and fibre content. The resulting increase in shaft torsional strength
governed by torsional buckling was demonstrated. Design equations
were exercised to demonstrate the impact on the optimization of a
composite shaft design.
Subsequently, the effect of a nanocalcite-filled epoxy matrix resin on
the strength of filament-wound composite drive shafts was investigated [4]. The effect of an increased matrix stiffness on shaft strength
was demonstrated using sub-scale and full-scale shafts by direct
comparison between the strength of shafts made with an unfilled
control and the strength of those made with an equivalent calcite
system (48 wt%, MR 8830). Table 4 summarizes the improvements
in peak torque for the nanocalcite shafts over the control shafts.
Additionally, the strength of a drive shaft made using the toughened
resin MR 8832 was directly compared to the strength of a shaft made
with an unfilled control of the same design. QA1 (Lakeville, MN)

Fig. 6: Torque vs. angular displacement for a full-scale drive shaft made using MR
8832 and an unfilled epoxy control resin

designed the proprietary winding pattern, wound carbon composite
tubes, and attached yokes to the tube ends.
The testing of full-scale shafts was conducted by QA1 using a custom-designed hydraulic torsional machine. The applied torque and
resulting twist angle were recorded as the torque was increased
monotonically to shaft failure.
The increase in peak torque for the 74 mm diameter shaft made with
nanocalcite-modified epoxy over the strength of the control was 27%
(Figure 6).
To demonstrate the advantage of the torque improvements enabled
by the nanocalcite resin, a design and test study was completed. It
compared two drive shafts designed to meet a torque specification of
3254 N-m at 6000 rpm. The first shaft used a standard bis-A epoxy
system, while the second one used a nanocalcite epoxy resulting in
two fewer layers of carbon fibre. Table 5 displays filament winding
process inputs and resin/fibre material details. In torque testing,
both tubes showed the critical torque needed to meet the specification (3674 and 3661 N-m peak torque for the bis-A and calcite
shafts, respectively). As shown in Table 5, the nanocalcite design
contained significantly less carbon fibre, had lower part manufacturing time, and was lower in weight. Significant part material cost
savings can be achieved depending on the size of the composite part
and the cost of the carbon fibre reinforcements.
Effects of nanocalcite matrix modification
on pressure vessel performance
There are two effects that were observed in nanoparticle modification of thermosets that are salient for the performance of pressure
vessel tanks.

Tab.4: Design parameters and peak torque information for experimental torque shafts
Resin

Wt% calcite

Dimensions (diameter x
thickness) mm

Average torque
at failure N-m

Winding pattern

Control

0

25.4 x 0.9

88.0

[±40]2S

MR 8830

48

25.4 x 0.9

115.5

[±40]2S

Control

0

73.7 x 1.75

2363

[±30/±30/±10/±10/±75]

MR 8830

48

73.7 x 1.75

2862

[±30/±30/±10/±10/±75]

N°133 March - April 2020

% Improvement in torque

31.4

21

/ jec composites magazine

143



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020

Cover
Edito
“For the past 130 years, every aspect of tire performance has been improved, except for one”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
Aerospace
BUSINESS
Strategy - Selling your business, Part 1: maximizing value on both sides of the deal
Trends - Automotive: what will be tomorrow’s reality?
Boatbuilding - Maritime and shipbuilding sector: a niche market with growth potential
China - China’s glass fibre industry is entering a new cycle
MANUFACTURING
Fabrics - GaplessWeave process for higher-quality carbon fibre fabrics
Electric vehicle - The potential of epoxy SMC in electro-mobility battery systems
Simulation - New updates for the Composite Materials Module’s users
Aerospace - lnfused primary structures: the gateway to tomorrow’s air mobility
Aircraft interiors - New core filler for aircraft interiors: reduced material, weight and manufacturing costs
Sustainability - Eco Impact Calculator, a Life Cycle Assessment tool for the composites industry
PREVIEW JEC WORLD 2020
- EDUCATION & KNOWLEDGE
- MARKET OVERVIEW / Fact & figures
- AT THE FOREFRONT IN JEC WORLD 2020
- VIEW FROM THE TOP
- INNOVATION
- SUSTAINABILITY
- END-USE MARKETS
- PROCESS & AUTOMATION
- INTERNATIONAL
SOLUTIONS
Book - Composites in infrastructure
Construction - Composites joining science and religion
Urban equipment - Composite infrastructure products: a new alternative for the construction industry
Aeronautics - To new horizons, with composites
Aeronautics - Thermoplastic composite bracket for aircraft engines
Off shore wind energy - Taming the offshore winds
Biocomposites - Where are natural fibre composites heading?
Natural fibres - The challenges of building large structures from flax fibre composite
TECHNOLOGY
Resin - Properties and composite applications of nanocalcitemodified epoxies
Inside the lab - Architected Material and Structures (AMS), a team from Navier Laboratory (Ecole des Ponts ParisTech/IFSTTAR/CNRS)
FMEL - Fibre-metal elastomer laminates – Lightweight components with superior damping characteristics
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - CF
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - CB
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - “For the past 130 years, every aspect of tire performance has been improved, except for one”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aerospace
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Strategy - Selling your business, Part 1: maximizing value on both sides of the deal
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Trends - Automotive: what will be tomorrow’s reality?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Boatbuilding - Maritime and shipbuilding sector: a niche market with growth potential
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - China - China’s glass fibre industry is entering a new cycle
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Fabrics - GaplessWeave process for higher-quality carbon fibre fabrics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Electric vehicle - The potential of epoxy SMC in electro-mobility battery systems
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Simulation - New updates for the Composite Materials Module’s users
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aerospace - lnfused primary structures: the gateway to tomorrow’s air mobility
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aircraft interiors - New core filler for aircraft interiors: reduced material, weight and manufacturing costs
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Sustainability - Eco Impact Calculator, a Life Cycle Assessment tool for the composites industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - EDUCATION & KNOWLEDGE
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - MARKET OVERVIEW / Fact & figures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - AT THE FOREFRONT IN JEC WORLD 2020
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - VIEW FROM THE TOP
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - INNOVATION
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 69
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - SUSTAINABILITY
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 71
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - END-USE MARKETS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 73
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 74
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 75
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 76
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 77
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 78
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 79
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - PROCESS & AUTOMATION
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 81
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 82
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 83
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 84
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 85
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 86
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 87
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 88
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 89
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 90
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - INTERNATIONAL
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 92
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 93
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 94
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 95
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 96
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 97
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 98
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 99
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 101
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 104
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 105
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 106
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 107
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 108
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 109
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 110
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 111
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 112
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 113
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 114
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Book - Composites in infrastructure
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 116
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 117
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Construction - Composites joining science and religion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 119
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 120
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 121
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Urban equipment - Composite infrastructure products: a new alternative for the construction industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 123
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aeronautics - To new horizons, with composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 125
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 126
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aeronautics - Thermoplastic composite bracket for aircraft engines
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 128
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Off shore wind energy - Taming the offshore winds
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 130
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 131
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 132
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Biocomposites - Where are natural fibre composites heading?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 134
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 135
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Natural fibres - The challenges of building large structures from flax fibre composite
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 137
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 138
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Resin - Properties and composite applications of nanocalcitemodified epoxies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 140
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 141
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 142
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 143
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 144
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 145
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 146
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 147
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Inside the lab - Architected Material and Structures (AMS), a team from Navier Laboratory (Ecole des Ponts ParisTech/IFSTTAR/CNRS)
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 149
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 150
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - FMEL - Fibre-metal elastomer laminates – Lightweight components with superior damping characteristics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 152
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 153
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 155
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