JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 140

TECHNOLOGY resin

Fig.1: Cross-section of a vertically-infused transfer-moulded laminate demonstrating a uniform distribution of nanocalcite after infusion processing [4, 5].
Nanocalcite appears as small white dots

ed for composite processing and the polymer/particle interactions
needed for superior mechanical properties; and
- Particle size distribution enabling impregnation of the fibre reinforcement without filtration.
To illustrate the latter capability, Figure 1 shows a cross-section of a
cured laminate from a through-thickness infusion process [4, 5]. The
concentration is uniform from the top of the laminate to the bottom,
confirming that the nanoscale particles were not filtered out during
infusion. The particles are seen to be well-distributed even between
individual fibres.

Development of formulated and
masterbatch nanocalcite resin systems
The desirability of highly loading matrix materials for fibre composites with surface-modified inorganic nanoparticles was established
previously using amorphous spherical silica. Prepreg, pultrusion,
resin transfer moulding (RTM), and winding were used to produce
materials and parts with enhanced performance [e.g., 2-4, 6-11]. The
extensibility of the technology was demonstrated through successful implementation in various epoxy and bismaleimide formulations
and through use with various curatives.

Previous work examined the effect of nanocalcite particle concentration on the properties of a bisphenol-A epoxy resin [4]. This study
demonstrated the range and balance of properties that are achievable as a function of particle loading and synergies with various cure
chemistries. Important properties for composite matrix applications
were reported including modulus, fracture toughness, coefficient of
thermal expansion, cure exotherm, cure shrinkage, and hardness.
Based on this initial work, 3M recently developed a series of low-viscosity nanocalcite-modified thermoset resins in order to provide
differentiated resin solutions for use in composite processes such
as filament winding, pultrusion, resin transfer moulding (RTM),
high-pressure RTM (HP RTM), vacuum-assisted resin transfer
moulding (VARTM) and solvent-based prepregging [5]. Table 1 lists
the selected resin formulations featured in this discussion. A range
of important attributes are addressed in this material set: viscosity,
toughness, service temperature, and processability. From the standpoint of material development, each of these presents challenges of
maintaining particle stabilization, controlling particle-particle interactions, and balancing cured resin properties. The final nanocalcite
particle loading for these resins depends on the curative type and the
epoxy/curative ratio used. The matrix resins listed in Table 1 allow
loadings of 35 wt% for typical anhydride cures (8831, 8832, 8834)
and amine curatives (8833, 8836). For typical catalytic curing, 57
wt% can be achieved with MR 8830.

Nanocalcite-modified epoxy neat resin properties
Tables 2 summarizes neat resin data for selected nanocalcite-modified epoxy resins spanning a glass transition range of 120-220°C and
epoxy structures (i.e., Bis-A, Bis-F, cycloaliphatic) versus suitable
control systems. The neat resin properties of matrix resins 883X (X=
0-5) and the effect of nanocalcite concentration were reported previously [4, 5]. Summarizing Table 2, the inclusion of nanocalcite leads
to resin systems with a high modulus, high hardness, increased fracture resistance, low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), reduced
cure shrinkage, and reduced cure exotherm.
A unique feature of the nanocalcite-modified epoxy systems is the simultaneous improvement in modulus and fracture toughness. Stiffness
and toughness are competing properties in thermosets. Strategies to
increase modulus can result in the creation of a brittle, lower toughness
resin system. Alternatively, traditional toughening strategies, such as
the incorporation of core-shell rubber materials, can cause a decrease

Tab.1: Calcite resin portfolio

140

Matrix resin

Description

Processing/attributes

8830

Bis-A epoxy

Masterbatch form of material in [4]

8831

Epoxy formulated for low viscosity

Low viscosity facilitates winding, pultrusion for anhydride cures

8832

Epoxy with toughening agent

Significantly increased toughness for anhydride cures

8833

Epoxy formulated for low viscosity with lower particle size

Formulated for RTM, VARTM, HP-RTM and winding with amine curatives

8834

Cycloaliphatic epoxy

Low viscosity for vacuum infusion; capable of very high service temperature; high particle
loading

8835

Epoxy with solvent (acetone)

Suitable for solvent prepregging processes

8836

Bis F epoxy with lower particle size

Formulated for RTM, VARTM, and HP-RTM with amine curatives

jec composites magazine / N°133 March - April 2020



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020

Cover
Edito
“For the past 130 years, every aspect of tire performance has been improved, except for one”
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Agenda
Aerospace
BUSINESS
Strategy - Selling your business, Part 1: maximizing value on both sides of the deal
Trends - Automotive: what will be tomorrow’s reality?
Boatbuilding - Maritime and shipbuilding sector: a niche market with growth potential
China - China’s glass fibre industry is entering a new cycle
MANUFACTURING
Fabrics - GaplessWeave process for higher-quality carbon fibre fabrics
Electric vehicle - The potential of epoxy SMC in electro-mobility battery systems
Simulation - New updates for the Composite Materials Module’s users
Aerospace - lnfused primary structures: the gateway to tomorrow’s air mobility
Aircraft interiors - New core filler for aircraft interiors: reduced material, weight and manufacturing costs
Sustainability - Eco Impact Calculator, a Life Cycle Assessment tool for the composites industry
PREVIEW JEC WORLD 2020
- EDUCATION & KNOWLEDGE
- MARKET OVERVIEW / Fact & figures
- AT THE FOREFRONT IN JEC WORLD 2020
- VIEW FROM THE TOP
- INNOVATION
- SUSTAINABILITY
- END-USE MARKETS
- PROCESS & AUTOMATION
- INTERNATIONAL
SOLUTIONS
Book - Composites in infrastructure
Construction - Composites joining science and religion
Urban equipment - Composite infrastructure products: a new alternative for the construction industry
Aeronautics - To new horizons, with composites
Aeronautics - Thermoplastic composite bracket for aircraft engines
Off shore wind energy - Taming the offshore winds
Biocomposites - Where are natural fibre composites heading?
Natural fibres - The challenges of building large structures from flax fibre composite
TECHNOLOGY
Resin - Properties and composite applications of nanocalcitemodified epoxies
Inside the lab - Architected Material and Structures (AMS), a team from Navier Laboratory (Ecole des Ponts ParisTech/IFSTTAR/CNRS)
FMEL - Fibre-metal elastomer laminates – Lightweight components with superior damping characteristics
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - CF
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - CB
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - “For the past 130 years, every aspect of tire performance has been improved, except for one”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aerospace
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Strategy - Selling your business, Part 1: maximizing value on both sides of the deal
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Trends - Automotive: what will be tomorrow’s reality?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Boatbuilding - Maritime and shipbuilding sector: a niche market with growth potential
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - China - China’s glass fibre industry is entering a new cycle
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Fabrics - GaplessWeave process for higher-quality carbon fibre fabrics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Electric vehicle - The potential of epoxy SMC in electro-mobility battery systems
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Simulation - New updates for the Composite Materials Module’s users
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aerospace - lnfused primary structures: the gateway to tomorrow’s air mobility
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aircraft interiors - New core filler for aircraft interiors: reduced material, weight and manufacturing costs
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Sustainability - Eco Impact Calculator, a Life Cycle Assessment tool for the composites industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - EDUCATION & KNOWLEDGE
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - MARKET OVERVIEW / Fact & figures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - AT THE FOREFRONT IN JEC WORLD 2020
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - VIEW FROM THE TOP
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - INNOVATION
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 61
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 63
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 69
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - SUSTAINABILITY
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 71
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - END-USE MARKETS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 73
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 74
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 75
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 76
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 77
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 78
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 79
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - PROCESS & AUTOMATION
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 81
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 82
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 83
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 84
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 85
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 86
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 89
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 90
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - - INTERNATIONAL
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 92
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 93
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 94
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 113
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 114
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Book - Composites in infrastructure
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 116
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 117
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Construction - Composites joining science and religion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 119
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 120
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 121
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Urban equipment - Composite infrastructure products: a new alternative for the construction industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 123
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aeronautics - To new horizons, with composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 125
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 126
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Aeronautics - Thermoplastic composite bracket for aircraft engines
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 128
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Off shore wind energy - Taming the offshore winds
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 130
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 131
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 132
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Biocomposites - Where are natural fibre composites heading?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 134
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 135
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Natural fibres - The challenges of building large structures from flax fibre composite
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 137
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 138
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Resin - Properties and composite applications of nanocalcitemodified epoxies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 140
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 141
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 142
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 146
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 147
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Inside the lab - Architected Material and Structures (AMS), a team from Navier Laboratory (Ecole des Ponts ParisTech/IFSTTAR/CNRS)
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 149
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 150
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - FMEL - Fibre-metal elastomer laminates – Lightweight components with superior damping characteristics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 152
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - 153
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #133 - March/April 2020 - Advertisers
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