JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 64

TECHNOLOGY biocomposites
a

b

c

What are Hygromorph BioComposite (HBC)?
HBCs represent a disruptive approach to the use of plant
fibres and their natural actuation potential. They are autonomous actuators with a reversible response triggered by a
moisture/temperature gradient. HBCs can produce a large
displacement or force.
Their responsiveness is programmable according to the
Timoshenko theory of bimetal thermostats [15]. Indeed,
their actuation can be programmed through the swelling coefficient, the moisture content, the stiffness or the thickness
ratio of each layer [15][16]. Their response not only depends
on the natural fibre volume content, but also on the interfacial shear strength [17]. In addition, their actuation potential
appears to be directly controlled by the fibre microstructure
(cellulose MFA and lumen size) and biochemical composition (pectin, hemicellulose and lignin content).
HBCs are currently manufactured using a cost-effective thermocompression process that yields an initial planar geometry. When using a thermoplastic polymeric matrix, HBCs
are thermoformable so that complex shapes and actuations
can be achieved. At the end of their life, they are recyclable
and potentially compostable. Additive manufacturing and
3D/4D printing of natural fibre composites can also be envisaged [18].
HBCs can therefore be used as a deploying system as a
whole, or as a building block for deployment, such as an active hinge for self-shaping devices (Figure 2a). In this case,
a hygroscopically-active biocomposite can act as an active
hinge that connects facets of passive materials. Figure 2a presents the evolution of a hinge-type origami prototype that
uses an HBC as active hinges and a PLA polymer as passive
facets before and after water immersion.
Hinge-less rectangular sheets with a curved crease pattern
could yield a specific folding and create a 3D shape [19].
Both elements of the sheets are constrained by each other
because of the curved line. Thus, a small uniaxial bending
forces the thin shell element to bend with a reverse curvature. Exploiting the anisotropic behaviour of the HBCs and
placing them on the backbone element while in the planar

64

jec composites magazine / N°120 April 2018

Fig. 2: Example of hygromorph biocomposites
used as (a) hinge-type origami [20], and (b) a
simple deployable structure based on curved
line folding [20]; (c) kirigami design for HBCs:
IRDL laboratory's cut patterns [20]

state generates a continuous bending of this element during
sorption (Figure 2b, RH = 50%). The forces and the moment are therefore transmitted to the adjacent face through
the crease and trigger autonomous self-snapping.
Kirigami is more and more applied to smart materials (electro-active, SMA, SMP) to develop self-deploying structures
[21, 22, 23] . In a similar way, laser-cut HBCs made with different cutting patterns that exhibit bending from a planar
biocomposite sheet were generated. Laser cutting enables
the creation of patterns with tiny cuts (2 mm in width), so
that moisture-actuated membranes can be manufactured
(Figure 2c).
Apart from already known applications in textiles or as a
reinforcement in polymer composites, the proposed hygromorph biocomposite mechanism suggests another potential
application of flax fibres in the field of smart membranes,
active building skins, autonomous shading systems, solar
trackers, etc. that could consequently become an additional
source of income for plant fibre producers.
More information:
Antoine.le-duigou@univ-ubs.fr
Mickael.castro@univ-ubs.fr
References
[1] Bledzki AK, Gassan J. Composites Reinforced with Cellulose Based
Fibres. Prog Polym Sci 1999;24:221-74.
[2] Hill CAS, Norton A, Newman G. The water vapor sorption behavior
of natural fibers. J Appl Polym Sci 2009;112:1524-37. doi:10.1002/
app.29725.
[3] Preston JM, Ackson JHE, Nimkar MV. A Note on the Anisotrophy of
Cellulose Acetate Fibres. J Soc Dye Colour 1949;65:483-5.
[4] Le Duigou A, Merotte J, Bourmaud A, Davies P, Belhouli K, Baley
C. Hygroscopic expansion: A key point to describe natural fibre/
polymer matrix interface bond strength. Compos Sci Technol 2017;151.
doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2017.08.028.
[5] Joffre T, Wernersson ELG, Miettinen A, Luengo Hendriks CL,
Gamstedt EK. Swelling of cellulose fibres in composite materials:
Constraint effects of the surrounding matrix. Compos Sci Technol



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018

Cover
Edito
Opinion: Future of medecine
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Construction
Agenda
BUSINESS
Simulation - Productivity is a combination of good design with good manufacturing processes
China - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
Thermoset - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
MANUFACTURING
Non destructive control - Smart Defect Control: the next level of carbon NCF quality
Injection - lnjection moulders who have made bioplastics work
Fibre placement - Advanced technologies for the manufacture of aircraft components using dry fibre placement
Building & Construction - Is construction the most promising sector for composites?
Trends - The future of building: the growing use of composites in construction and architecture
Pultrusion - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
House - Thermoplastic composites for the building industry
Additive manufacturing - 3D printing technology for building and construction
Wet area - The Núcleo Húmedo composite module facilitates the construction of houses
BIM - Building lnformation Modelling will bring a paradigm shift in the construction industry
Testimony - A new generation of ancient shades of architecture
Roofing - Reducing the weight of the Pavilion of Inspiration with composite materials
Covers - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
SOLUTIONS
Healthcare - The Project lnvincible shield helps protect patients after surgery
Medical - lmplantable PEEK polymers pioneering further progress
Medical - Kevlar-based artificial cartilage
In the world
TECHNOLOGY
Additive manufacturing - Simulating the effects of warpage in an additively-manufactured composite layup tool
Reliability - Improving composite manufacturing reliability and yield with affordable models and simulations
Biocomposites - Bio-inspired smart hygromorph biocomposites: a novel functionality for natural fibres
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Opinion: Future of medecine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Simulation - Productivity is a combination of good design with good manufacturing processes
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - China - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Thermoset - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Non destructive control - Smart Defect Control: the next level of carbon NCF quality
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Injection - lnjection moulders who have made bioplastics work
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Fibre placement - Advanced technologies for the manufacture of aircraft components using dry fibre placement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Trends - The future of building: the growing use of composites in construction and architecture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Pultrusion - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - House - Thermoplastic composites for the building industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Additive manufacturing - 3D printing technology for building and construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Wet area - The Núcleo Húmedo composite module facilitates the construction of houses
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - BIM - Building lnformation Modelling will bring a paradigm shift in the construction industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Testimony - A new generation of ancient shades of architecture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Roofing - Reducing the weight of the Pavilion of Inspiration with composite materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Covers - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Healthcare - The Project lnvincible shield helps protect patients after surgery
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Medical - lmplantable PEEK polymers pioneering further progress
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Medical - Kevlar-based artificial cartilage
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Additive manufacturing - Simulating the effects of warpage in an additively-manufactured composite layup tool
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Reliability - Improving composite manufacturing reliability and yield with affordable models and simulations
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Biocomposites - Bio-inspired smart hygromorph biocomposites: a novel functionality for natural fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 67
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