JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 59

lmproving composite manufacturing reliability and yield with affordable models and simulations

Such a level of analysis requires many intermediate steps that can be overwhelming for an SME. For example, he or she will first have to license
the software, then to learn how to execute it effectively, then to create the
input for the software such as the part mesh, which has to be extracted
from the CAD design ensuring it has proper continuity and connectivity
to serve as input for the flow simulator. Then the engineer will also need
to know where and how to assign the race tracking channels. One of the
biggest hurdles is to obtain the preform permeability input data to be assigned in the model, as this requires additional time and characterization
resources. All these steps can be daunting for an SME. Hence, it would
be helpful to benefit from intermediate solutions that do not require a
large investment upfront but help develop confidence and take baby
steps towards virtual modelling and simulation. Intermediate solutions
may be based on analytic solutions or simple apps that can provide guidance and knowledge resulting from experience and simulations. Such a
solution could be immediate, requiring no learning curve and reducing
the number of trials needed to converge towards a production cycle with
optimal process conditions.
Approach
The goal here is to introduce tools that may not be necessarily 100% accurate but provide guidance to improve the process design and mitigate
failure risks.
The most important requirements are the preform permeability values
to predict the mould filling time, and the flow patterns, which help determine where to place the inlets and vents to avoid air and/or VOC entrapment. Permeability measurement experiments are a time-consuming task that requires specialized equipment.
Thus, an easier and faster approach based on a computational tool is
preferable, relying on direct permeability calculations from the material
images and allowing the creation of a database of input material properties for process simulations.
Image-based fibre preform
permeability prediction tool
A tool that directly computes permeability from an image of the preform
material can proceed in two ways: (1) either a top-view photo of a fabric
taken with a conventional camera is used to extract some the fabric's geometrical parameters and then create an input image using these parameters with the help of a textile structure modeller; or (2) if techniques
such as optical or scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray tomography or other are available, the fabric microstructure images obtained
with these techniques are used as an input for permeability calculations.
To obtain good permeability estimates in calculations, it is important to
properly choose: (i) a sufficient image resolution, (ii) the image dimensions to ensure a typical repetitive material pattern. Automated tools that
can provide an easy approach using images of the fabric for permeability
predictions are of great utility (Figure 2).
For reinforcements with a complex architecture (such as woven fabrics
or 3D interlocks) and high fibre volume contents, permeability calculations based on 2D transverse cross-sectional images of fabrics may not
be sufficient. In such cases, a calculation based on 3D images is required.
Fast and efficient computational tools are available to handle the 3D
complexity [7, 8]. The user friendliness of such tools can also provide

an advantage as the user is not restricted to small image sizes of a typical
pattern as input.
The images of the preform reinforcements are processed prior to the permeability calculation in order to identify the orientation of the constitutive tows and local variations in the structure, which greatly influence the
permeability values (Figure 2). This is done through the smart use of
available image processing techniques, and particularly texture recognition techniques that are encapsulated in a permeability prediction tool.
The tool is partly automated to reduce the learning curve, depending on
the image resolution and complexity of the material structure.
Finally, if the preform contains different fabrics to locally reinforce certain regions, or if the curved part geometry causes local deformations in
the material, the corresponding permeabilities of these regions should
be calculated from the images as well in order to assign them locally in
the mould filling simulation (Figure 2).

Fig. 2: Image-based fabric permeability prediction tools (GeMage-Flow3D©
software developed by the GeM Institute - Ecole Centrale Nantes). After one has
the values of the permeability of fabrics, that can be used as input for mould filling
simulations [8]

Once the fabric permeability values are available, even without flow simulation tools, very simple analysis tools can provide guidance for filling
times based on the overall dimensions of the part, as described in the
next section.
Web-based tools and software "calculators"
After predicting the permeability from the fabric image, many processing parameters can be estimated using analytic or approximate solutions.
These can be implemented as local executables or spreadsheets (calculators) or, given the simplicity of evaluation, as simple web-based tools
that can be shared by a wide community of manufacturers.
A typical example of simple and useful engineering science results can
be found when infusing commonplace VARTM resin into a sizeable rectangular panel, which requires sequential infusion and flow media since
the driving pressure is limited.
Resin injection starts from the line in the middle and, as the resin progresses, sequential lines are opened to speed up the infusion process
(Figure 3).
N°120 April 2018

/ jec composites magazine

59



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018

Cover
Edito
Opinion: Future of medecine
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Construction
Agenda
BUSINESS
Simulation - Productivity is a combination of good design with good manufacturing processes
China - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
Thermoset - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
MANUFACTURING
Non destructive control - Smart Defect Control: the next level of carbon NCF quality
Injection - lnjection moulders who have made bioplastics work
Fibre placement - Advanced technologies for the manufacture of aircraft components using dry fibre placement
Building & Construction - Is construction the most promising sector for composites?
Trends - The future of building: the growing use of composites in construction and architecture
Pultrusion - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
House - Thermoplastic composites for the building industry
Additive manufacturing - 3D printing technology for building and construction
Wet area - The Núcleo Húmedo composite module facilitates the construction of houses
BIM - Building lnformation Modelling will bring a paradigm shift in the construction industry
Testimony - A new generation of ancient shades of architecture
Roofing - Reducing the weight of the Pavilion of Inspiration with composite materials
Covers - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
SOLUTIONS
Healthcare - The Project lnvincible shield helps protect patients after surgery
Medical - lmplantable PEEK polymers pioneering further progress
Medical - Kevlar-based artificial cartilage
In the world
TECHNOLOGY
Additive manufacturing - Simulating the effects of warpage in an additively-manufactured composite layup tool
Reliability - Improving composite manufacturing reliability and yield with affordable models and simulations
Biocomposites - Bio-inspired smart hygromorph biocomposites: a novel functionality for natural fibres
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Opinion: Future of medecine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Simulation - Productivity is a combination of good design with good manufacturing processes
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - China - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Thermoset - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Non destructive control - Smart Defect Control: the next level of carbon NCF quality
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Injection - lnjection moulders who have made bioplastics work
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Fibre placement - Advanced technologies for the manufacture of aircraft components using dry fibre placement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Trends - The future of building: the growing use of composites in construction and architecture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Pultrusion - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - House - Thermoplastic composites for the building industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Additive manufacturing - 3D printing technology for building and construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Wet area - The Núcleo Húmedo composite module facilitates the construction of houses
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - BIM - Building lnformation Modelling will bring a paradigm shift in the construction industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Testimony - A new generation of ancient shades of architecture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Roofing - Reducing the weight of the Pavilion of Inspiration with composite materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Covers - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Healthcare - The Project lnvincible shield helps protect patients after surgery
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Medical - lmplantable PEEK polymers pioneering further progress
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Medical - Kevlar-based artificial cartilage
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Additive manufacturing - Simulating the effects of warpage in an additively-manufactured composite layup tool
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Reliability - Improving composite manufacturing reliability and yield with affordable models and simulations
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Biocomposites - Bio-inspired smart hygromorph biocomposites: a novel functionality for natural fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 67
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