JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 58

TECHNOLOGY reliability

lmproving composite manufacturing reliability
and yield with affordable models and simulations

elena SyerkO, chriStOphe Binetruy
xEcole Centrale de Nantes, Research Institute in Civil Engineering and Mechanics
(GeM),
UMR CNRS 6183
pavel Simacecek, SureSeSh advani
Department of Mechanical Engineering
and Center for Composite Materials,
University of Delaware

Composite manufacturing still often relies on trial-and-error approaches
to design the process, making little use of the plethora of science-based
literature, models and simulations. This paper presents an approach for the
development of easy-to-use tools with no learning curve, with lower licensing costs and can provide useful information to manufacturing engineers
or technicians, helping them improve their yield and reliability with fewer
trials. Examples of such tools are presented for liquid composite moulding
processes, but can be extended to other processes.

l

n the past two decades, many specialized codes were developed to
model various composite manufacturing processes. However, these
codes were not widely adopted in the industrial world because of
two reasons: (1) these simulations are not integrated within the CAD
platforms and hence need additional interfaces, making the transition
difficult; and (2) the cost is beyond the reach of many small- to medium-sized companies (SMEs) due to the code licensing fees, the learning curve associated with such simulations, and the resources and time
needed to characterize these materials because the material database is
not easily available.
The industrial world recognizes and acknowledges that the trial-and-error approaches used to develop prototypes are expensive and time consuming. Moreover, composite manufacturers inherently suffer from material and process variability, which results in lower yields than expected
during the production cycle. Hence, they would welcome an alternative
approach or solution to reduce prototype-to-production times and
improve yields despite material and process variations. At first glance,
process simulations seem to offer a commercially-available solution, but
very few companies have embraced this path to improve their productivity. In fact, it seems that most industries only resort to simulation when
their trial-and-error efforts have not resulted in a successful prototype.

As most industrial people will admit, the main hurdle to using modelling and simulation tools is the learning curve necessary to become proficient. Moreover, material data is not easily available and is time consuming to characterize and sometimes difficult to relate to the software
input. It is also difficult to convert a CAD drawing of a complex part to a
manufacturing simulation software input as they do not share the same
platform. These bottlenecks have slowed the use of simulation tools in
manufacturing.
This paper discusses how one can gradually shift from trial and error to
a full virtual simulation environment to build the path from prototypes
to products. It will focus on the widely used liquid composite moulding
process, for which commercial mould filling simulations are available [13]. This process has become more commonly used for the manufacture
of complex parts and there has been some success in demonstrating that
optimal process design can lead to a robust process despite possible flow
variations from one part to the next, producing less scrap and higher
yield [4]. This can be seen in the example presented in Figure 1.
Disruptions in the filling pattern can result from the presence of small
gaps when the preform does not hug exactly the same way around corners and inserts, causing the resin to race along these gaps and dramatically changing the flow pattern. A simulation can execute all the permutations of possible flow patterns and determine the vent locations
where the resin will arrive last for most of these scenarios. This is
illustrated in Figure 1.

Fig. 1: Liquid Injection Moulding Simulation (LIMS© software developed by the University of Delaware) can predict vent locations for successful mould filling in a complex
mould, which may trigger race tracking along edges and corners resulting in 1024 possible flow patterns [1]

58

jec composites magazine / N°120 April 2018



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018

Cover
Edito
Opinion: Future of medecine
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Construction
Agenda
BUSINESS
Simulation - Productivity is a combination of good design with good manufacturing processes
China - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
Thermoset - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
MANUFACTURING
Non destructive control - Smart Defect Control: the next level of carbon NCF quality
Injection - lnjection moulders who have made bioplastics work
Fibre placement - Advanced technologies for the manufacture of aircraft components using dry fibre placement
Building & Construction - Is construction the most promising sector for composites?
Trends - The future of building: the growing use of composites in construction and architecture
Pultrusion - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
House - Thermoplastic composites for the building industry
Additive manufacturing - 3D printing technology for building and construction
Wet area - The Núcleo Húmedo composite module facilitates the construction of houses
BIM - Building lnformation Modelling will bring a paradigm shift in the construction industry
Testimony - A new generation of ancient shades of architecture
Roofing - Reducing the weight of the Pavilion of Inspiration with composite materials
Covers - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
SOLUTIONS
Healthcare - The Project lnvincible shield helps protect patients after surgery
Medical - lmplantable PEEK polymers pioneering further progress
Medical - Kevlar-based artificial cartilage
In the world
TECHNOLOGY
Additive manufacturing - Simulating the effects of warpage in an additively-manufactured composite layup tool
Reliability - Improving composite manufacturing reliability and yield with affordable models and simulations
Biocomposites - Bio-inspired smart hygromorph biocomposites: a novel functionality for natural fibres
Index
Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Opinion: Future of medecine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Simulation - Productivity is a combination of good design with good manufacturing processes
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - China - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Thermoset - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Non destructive control - Smart Defect Control: the next level of carbon NCF quality
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Injection - lnjection moulders who have made bioplastics work
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Fibre placement - Advanced technologies for the manufacture of aircraft components using dry fibre placement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Trends - The future of building: the growing use of composites in construction and architecture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Pultrusion - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - House - Thermoplastic composites for the building industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Additive manufacturing - 3D printing technology for building and construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Wet area - The Núcleo Húmedo composite module facilitates the construction of houses
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - BIM - Building lnformation Modelling will bring a paradigm shift in the construction industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Testimony - A new generation of ancient shades of architecture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Roofing - Reducing the weight of the Pavilion of Inspiration with composite materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Covers - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Healthcare - The Project lnvincible shield helps protect patients after surgery
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Medical - lmplantable PEEK polymers pioneering further progress
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Medical - Kevlar-based artificial cartilage
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Additive manufacturing - Simulating the effects of warpage in an additively-manufactured composite layup tool
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Reliability - Improving composite manufacturing reliability and yield with affordable models and simulations
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Biocomposites - Bio-inspired smart hygromorph biocomposites: a novel functionality for natural fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 67
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2107_141
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2105_140
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2103_139
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm-experts-digest-additive-manufacturing-2020
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2101_138
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2011_Special_Issue4
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2011_137
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2009_136
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2007_135
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm_2020_Q1_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2005_Special_Issue3
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2005_134
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2003_133
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2001_132
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_Special_Issue2
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_131
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1909_130
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1907_129
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1905_128
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_Special_Issue1
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_127
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1901_126
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1811_125
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1810_124
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1808_123
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1807_122
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1805_121
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1804_120
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1803_119
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1802_119-Supplement_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1801_118
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1711_117
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1710_116
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1708_115
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1707_114
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1706_113
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1704_112
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1703_111
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1701_110
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1611_109
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1610_108
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1608_107
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1607_106
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1605_105
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1604_104
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1603_103
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1601_102
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1511_101
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1510_100
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1509_99
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1507_98
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1505_97
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1504_96
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1503_95
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1501_94
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1412_93
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1410_92
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1409_91
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1406_90
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1405_89
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1404_88
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1403_87
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1401_86
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1311_85
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1310_84
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1308_83
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1307_82
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1305_81
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1304_80
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1303_79
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1301_78
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1212_77
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1210_76
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1208_75
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1207_74
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1206_73
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1204_72
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1203_71
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1201_70
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1111_69
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1110_68
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1108_67
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1107_66
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1105_65
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1104_64
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1103_63
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1101_62
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1011_61
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1010_60
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1009_59
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1006_58
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1005_57
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1004_56
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1003_55
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1001_54
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0911_53
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0910_52
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0909_51
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0907-08_50
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0906_49
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0904_48
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0903_47
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0901_46
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0811_45
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0810_44
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0809_43
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0807_42
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0806_41
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0805_40
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0803_39
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0801_38
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0712_37
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0710_36
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0709_35
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0707_34
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0706_33
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com