JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 57

Simulating the effects of warpage in an additively-manufactured composite layup tool

Fig. 2: Comparison between measured warpage on a physically-printed part
(RMS signed distance, left) and Digimat-AM warpage prediction (X displacements, right)

Fig. 4: Warpage prediction after geometry compensation in Digimat-AM.
Left: superposition of the as-printed (red) and as-designed (green) parts;
right: RMS signed distance, maximum deviation is less than 0.1 mm

the impact of design decisions on the manufacturing process before the
part is printed.
The development of this process simulation is facing several challenges:

- Loading the toolpath issued from the manufacturing processing
software and extracting information about the deposition sequence;
- Modelling, via micromechanics, the heterogeneous material microstructure as a function of the toolpath (e.g., porosity volume fraction
and orientation);
- Predicting the resulting warpage induced by the printing process;
- Iterating the design and optimizing the manufacturing process parameters to minimize warpage.

- Complex thermomechanical loadings occur during the layer-by-layer deposition of the material and the successive cooling of the part;
- Additive manufacturing is a true multi-scale challenge: the position
of bead deposition creates specific microstructures based on the
printing toolpath pattern, which drives the macroscopic mechanical
behaviour - typically inducing anisotropy;
- The thermal history of the material deposition generates differential
shrinkage between adjacent beads or layers that affects the end tolerances of the part.
Overall, modelling the printing process requires taking into account the
material state evolution to model the stress build-up as well as the stress
relaxation over time. Numerical predictions of warpage need to account
for the process parameters, the material characteristics and the printing
strategy (part orientation, toolpath, supports, etc.).
A multi-scale approach
Stratasys is working with e-Xstream to create FDM process simulation
via a multi-scale approach as a function of the process setup and material
choice. This approach includes the following steps:
- Solving a fully-coupled thermomechanical problem of the deposition process to identify the warpage behaviour of the printed material accounting for thermal exchanges inside the printer build (conduction, convection and radiation);

Results and benefits
As a direct result of the collaboration between Stratasys and e-Xstream
Engineering, the main objective of the process simulation is to print
right the first time. Designs and process parameters can be investigated
through the numerical simulation while the printed part fidelity can be
controlled before the first physical printing. More importantly, the simulation workflow enables to minimize warpage in only two steps using a
predeformed geometry. Working with Digimat-AM, Stratasys engineers
are thus able to save time and material by anticipating printing issues
with simulation (e.g., evaluate the impact of the printing direction and
location on the results).
Virtual engineering is the solution to optimize the manufacturing process because it enables the user to explore the process sensitivity to
manufacturing parameters at virtually zero marginal cost. The process
simulation experience in Digimat-AM is accessible to non FEA experts
thanks to its easy, efficient and user-friendly GUI designed to follow the
physical printing workflow.
Results correlation to test data
The warpage prediction was compared to 3D-scan measurements of
a physically-printed composite tool. Given the different mod¬elling
assumptions, the comparison shows a good general correlation with a
similar deformation pattern and amplitude. The warpage compensation
procedure significantly decreases the maximum deviation between the
reference geometry and the as-printed part (from 0.5 mm to less than
0.1 mm).
More information:
www.e-xstream.com

Fig. 3: Digimat-AM simulation approach for optimal printing

N°120 April 2018

/ jec composites magazine

57


http://www.e-xstream.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018

Cover
Edito
Opinion: Future of medecine
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Construction
Agenda
BUSINESS
Simulation - Productivity is a combination of good design with good manufacturing processes
China - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
Thermoset - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
MANUFACTURING
Non destructive control - Smart Defect Control: the next level of carbon NCF quality
Injection - lnjection moulders who have made bioplastics work
Fibre placement - Advanced technologies for the manufacture of aircraft components using dry fibre placement
Building & Construction - Is construction the most promising sector for composites?
Trends - The future of building: the growing use of composites in construction and architecture
Pultrusion - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
House - Thermoplastic composites for the building industry
Additive manufacturing - 3D printing technology for building and construction
Wet area - The Núcleo Húmedo composite module facilitates the construction of houses
BIM - Building lnformation Modelling will bring a paradigm shift in the construction industry
Testimony - A new generation of ancient shades of architecture
Roofing - Reducing the weight of the Pavilion of Inspiration with composite materials
Covers - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
SOLUTIONS
Healthcare - The Project lnvincible shield helps protect patients after surgery
Medical - lmplantable PEEK polymers pioneering further progress
Medical - Kevlar-based artificial cartilage
In the world
TECHNOLOGY
Additive manufacturing - Simulating the effects of warpage in an additively-manufactured composite layup tool
Reliability - Improving composite manufacturing reliability and yield with affordable models and simulations
Biocomposites - Bio-inspired smart hygromorph biocomposites: a novel functionality for natural fibres
Index
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Opinion: Future of medecine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Simulation - Productivity is a combination of good design with good manufacturing processes
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - China - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Thermoset - Sinoma-CCGC joint seminar on domestic carbon fibre applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Non destructive control - Smart Defect Control: the next level of carbon NCF quality
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Injection - lnjection moulders who have made bioplastics work
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Fibre placement - Advanced technologies for the manufacture of aircraft components using dry fibre placement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Trends - The future of building: the growing use of composites in construction and architecture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Pultrusion - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - House - Thermoplastic composites for the building industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Additive manufacturing - 3D printing technology for building and construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Wet area - The Núcleo Húmedo composite module facilitates the construction of houses
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - BIM - Building lnformation Modelling will bring a paradigm shift in the construction industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Testimony - A new generation of ancient shades of architecture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Roofing - Reducing the weight of the Pavilion of Inspiration with composite materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Covers - Opportunities for composite profiles in the residential housing market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Healthcare - The Project lnvincible shield helps protect patients after surgery
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Medical - lmplantable PEEK polymers pioneering further progress
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Medical - Kevlar-based artificial cartilage
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Additive manufacturing - Simulating the effects of warpage in an additively-manufactured composite layup tool
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Reliability - Improving composite manufacturing reliability and yield with affordable models and simulations
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Biocomposites - Bio-inspired smart hygromorph biocomposites: a novel functionality for natural fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #120 - April 2018 - 67
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