JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 65

Reinforcing composites - carbon nanotubes break new ground

Fig. 2: Comparison of delamination
areas due to 28.3 J impact damage for all modifications

Fig. 3: Comparison of compression after impact strenght for neat and single wall
carbon nanotube modified CFRP.

0.05 wt.%, significant changes were observed.
Neat and modified CFRP were subjected to impact with a typical
impact energy of 28.3 J, which can easily occur under the normal
service conditions of such CFRP materials. Ultrasonic C-scans were
performed to determine the impact area and damage depth. Damage
size was calculated by image processing from the defect's echo signal.
Figure 1 presents typical damage areas and shapes on three representative defect echo images for neat and modified CFRP prepreg specimens. The ultrasonic C-scan results demonstrated that, statistically,
the damage area was significantly reduced by as little as 0.01 wt.% and
0.05 wt.% of TUBALL modification.

pact tests, which are highly relevant for aircraft applications, showed
that a 0.05 wt.% TUBALL nanotube-modified material has the potential to increase the compression-after-impact strength by around
5% (Figure 3). Future developments will reveal even higher gains by
using optimised materials.

The neat specimens had an average delamination area of 3940
±470 mm2, and for those with 0.05 wt.% nanotube modification, the
average delamination area was 3180 ±130 mm2, which is a reduction
of 19.3% (Figure 2).
Reducing the delamination area is of high technical relevance as
delamination progress is one of the dominant mechanisms for final catastrophic failure of composites, especially in cyclic loading.
Concluding from that fact, it is clear that there is high future potential
for improved fatigue behaviour of TUBALL-modified CFRP.
It should also be mentioned that subsequent compression-after-im-

High potential for carbon nanotubes
also in high-volume materials
OCSiAl conducted interlaminar shear strength tests on glass fibre-reinforced polyester SMC composites enhanced with TUBALL single-wall carbon nanotubes in accordance with the ASTM D2344/
D2344M-16 standard. The tests showed that 0.05 wt.% of TUBALL
nanotubes increases the short-beam strength of polymer-matrix
composite materials and their laminates by 34%, while 0.1 wt.% of
TUBALL increases it by 45% (Figure 4).
Single-wall carbon nanotubes are 100 times stronger than steel, they
have the highest length-to-diameter ratio of around 5000, and they
are one of the best electrical conductors while being five times lighter
than copper. All these features make them unrivalled among other
widely-used carbon additives. Furthermore, ultra-low loadings starting from just 0.01% are enough to create a conductive and reinforcing 3D network in the polymer matrix.
The first few feasibility studies carried out on composite materials
reinforced with single-wall carbon nanotubes showed impressive
and encouraging results. While TUHH and OCSiAl are continuing
further development and testing of new high-performance materials,
a number of large manufacturers have also started industrial trials on
applications of these promising advanced materials. This market- and
research-driven progress is sure to lead to the development of a wide
range of new TUBALL-based materials with unique benefits for
their specific application.
More information: www.ocsial.com

Focus

Fig. 4: Short-beam strenght of polymer matrix composite materials reinforced
with TUBALLTM single wall carbon nanotubes

0.05 wt.% of single-wall carbon nanotubes:
- reduces the delamination area of modified CFRP by 19.3%;
- increases the compression-after-impact strength
of modified CFRP by 5%;
- increases the short-beam strength of polymer
composites by 34%.

No112 April - May 2017

/ jec composites magazine

65


http://www.ocsial.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017

Cover
Edito
Opinion: Civilian robotic
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Yachting
Strategy
Fabric
Agenda
BUSINESS
Additive manufacturing
Carbon
MANUFACTURING
Press
Repair
CNC
Natural fibres
Feature Aeronautics - Will the horizon stay clear?
Simulation
Software
NDT
Tooling
Self healing
Primary structure
Natural fibre
Recycling
Environment
Structures
SOLUTIONS
Sustainability
Sailplane
Lift
Construction
In the world
TECHNOLOGY
Nanomaterials
Thermoplastics
CFRP
Index
Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Opinion: Civilian robotic
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Yachting
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Strategy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Fabric
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Ad IPC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Ad JEC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Additive manufacturing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Carbon
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Press
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Repair
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - CNC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Natural fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Software
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - NDT
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Tooling
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Self healing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Primary structure
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Natural fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Recycling
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Structures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Sustainability
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Sailplane
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Lift
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Nanomaterials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Thermoplastics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - CFRP
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #112 - April/May 2017 - 67
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm_2020_Q1_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2005_Special_Issue3
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2005_134
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2003_133
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2001_132
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_Special_Issue2
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_131
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1909_130
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1907_129
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1905_128
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_Special_Issue1
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_127
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1901_126
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1811_125
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1810_124
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1808_123
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1807_122
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1805_121
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1804_120
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1803_119
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1802_119-Supplement_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1801_118
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1711_117
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1710_116
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1708_115
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1707_114
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1706_113
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1704_112
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1703_111
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1701_110
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1611_109
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1610_108
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1608_107
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1607_106
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1605_105
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1604_104
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1603_103
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1601_102
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1511_101
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1510_100
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1509_99
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1507_98
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1505_97
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1504_96
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1503_95
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1501_94
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1412_93
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1410_92
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1409_91
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1406_90
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1405_89
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1404_88
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1403_87
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1401_86
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1311_85
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1310_84
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1308_83
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1307_82
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1305_81
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1304_80
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1303_79
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1301_78
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1212_77
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1210_76
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1208_75
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1207_74
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1206_73
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1204_72
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1203_71
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1201_70
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1111_69
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1110_68
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1108_67
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1107_66
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1105_65
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1104_64
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1103_63
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1101_62
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1011_61
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1010_60
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1009_59
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1006_58
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1005_57
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1004_56
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1003_55
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1001_54
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0911_53
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0910_52
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0909_51
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0907-08_50
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0906_49
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0904_48
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0903_47
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0901_46
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0811_45
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0810_44
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0809_43
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0807_42
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0806_41
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0805_40
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0803_39
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0801_38
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0712_37
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0710_36
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0709_35
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0707_34
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0706_33
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com