JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 53

Flock fibre-reinforced laminar composites for improved Mode I fracture toughness

forcement layer materials (carbon, polyaramid and other
types of fibre reinforcement in fabric or mat form). Recently,
Z-axis reinforcement processing was successfully applied to
the fabrication of laminates using carbon fibre fabric/epoxy
prepreg materials. In this study, the "pre-flock" Z-axis processing methodology was used [20]. "Pre-flocking" was accomplished here by flocking fibres onto a slightly heated,
softened epoxy matrix (prepreg) assembly. The prepreg was
immediately re-frozen after vacuuming its surface. From the
presented data, it appears that "pre-flocking" of OPLC reinforcement fabrics is the most convenient way of introducing
flocked Z-axis fibres into an OPLC structure. Overall, the
data presented support the trend that higher flock densities
generally lead to laminates with greater toughness.
Finally, it is believed that "pre-flocked" composite reinforcement layer fabrics (weaves or mats) will eventually become
the most likely means of introducing UMD's Z-axis flock fibre reinforcement technology into the OPLC industry. Presumably, in the future, "pre-flocked" OPLC reinforcement
layer material will be available directly from fabric reinforcement material suppliers. Anyone can now carry out engineering evaluations of Z-axis reinforced composites without
getting involved with the technological intricacies of the
flocking process. It is believed that the utilitarian future of
UMD's OPLC reinforcement technology lies with the further
development of the "pre-flock" Z-axis reinforcement methodology.
More information:
www.umassd.edu
References
All technical inquiries regarding the content of this paper
should be directed to Dr. Yong. K. Kim (ykim@umassd.edu,
(508) 999-8452 USA)
[1] J. W. Gillespie, Jr., "Damage Tolerance of Composite
Structures", Journal of offshore Mechanics and Arctic
Engineering, 247-252, Aug 1991.
[2] J. W. Morley, "High-Performance Fiber Composites",
New York; Academic Press, 1987.
[3] Roy C. Laible and Fredrick. J. McGarry, "Toughening of
High Temperature Resistant Epoxy Resins", Polymer-Plastics
Technology and Engineering, Vol. 7, #1, 27-47 (1976).
[4] Nobuo Takeda et al., "Effect of Toughened Interlaminar
Layers on Fatigue Damage Progress in Quasi Isotropic CRPF
Laminates", International Journal of Fatigue, 21 235-242
(1999).
[5] Yasuyo Tazawa et al., "Interlaminar Fracture Toughness
of 3-D Orthogonal Interlocked Fabric Composites", Composite Science and Technology, 59 1261-1270 (1999).
[6] Jia Ren, Yong K. Kim, John Rice, "Comparing The Fracture
Toughness of 3-D Braided Pre-form Composites with Z-Fiber
Reinforced Laminar Composites", Textile Research Journal,

Vol. 81, Issue #4, March 2011.
[7] Brian Cox, et al., "Delamination Fracture in the Presence
of Through-Thickness Reinforcement", Australian Composite
Structures Society, pp. I-159 + I-177, July 1997.
[8] Mouritz and L.K. Jain, "Further Validation of the Jain and
Mai Models for Interlamination Fracture of Stitched Composites", Composite Science and Technology, 59 1653-1662
(1999).
[9] A P. Mouritz and L.K. Jain, "Interlaminar Fracture Properties of Stitched Fiberglass Composites", Proceedings of
ICCM-11, Gold Coast, Australia, pp.I116 + V-127 14th-18th
July 1997.
[10] Yong K. Kim and Sunil Hoskote, "Fracture Toughness of
Flock Fiber Reinforced Layered Composites", Proceedings
of 1st Simulation Conference 2003, June 9-11, UPV Valencia,
Spain, p. 477-482 (2003).
[11] Sunil Hoskote, Yong K. Kim, Armand F. Lewis,
"Through-Thickness Reinforcement of Laminar Composites",
Journal of Advanced Materials, Vol. 36, No. 3, 25-31 (2004).
[12] National Textile Center Proposal on "Fracture Toughness
of Through-Thickness Reinforced Composites", NTC Project
F04-MD12, Grant No. 02-07400, US Department of Commerce, May 2004.
[13] Feng, Liang, Mayur Kumbhani, Yong K. Kim, John M.
Rice, "Fracture Behavior of Flock Fiber Reinforced Laminar
Composites", Journal of Material Science and Engineering,
Vol. 1, No. 1, (June 2011).
[14] Kim, Yong K., Armand F. Lewis and John M. Rice US
Patent No. 7,981,495, "Materials Methodology to Improve
the Delamination Strength of Laminar Composites", issued
July 19. 2011.
[15] Pinto, Michael, Vijay Chalivendra, Yong Kim, Armand
Lewis, "Evaluation of Surface Treatment and Fabrication
Methods for Jute Fiber/Epoxy Laminar Composites", Polymer
Composites, 35(2), 310-17 (2014).
[16] Pinto, Michael, Vijay Chalivendra, Yong Kim, Armand
Lewis, "Effect of Surface Treatment and Z-axis Reinforcement on the Interlaminar Fracture of Jute/Epoxy Laminated
Composites," Engineering Fracture Mechanics; 114: 104-14
(2013).
[17] Pinto, Michael, Vijay Chalivendra, Yong Kim, Armand
Lewis, "Improving the strength and service life of jute/
epoxy laminar composites for structural applications,"
Composite Structures; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.10.005.
[18] Kaushik, A. (2010), "Z-Reinforcing Fibrous Laminar
Composites using Dry Flocking", M. S. Thesis, Mechanical
Engineering Department, UMass Dartmouth.
[19] Turk, B. T. (2014), "Pre-Flocked Composites", M. Sc. Thesis, Mechanical Engineering Department, UMass Dartmouth.
[20] Vipul Ranatunga, Stephen B. Clay, "Interlaminar Fracture Toughness Characterization of Z-Pinned and Flocked
Composite Laminates", AIAA SciTech 2014 Conference,
National Harbor, MD, (2014).

No110 January-February 2017 /

jec composites magazine

53


http://www.umassd.edu http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.10.005

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017

Cover
Edito
Opinion: Mobility
Contents
NEWS
In brief
Startup competition
Construction & public transport
Investment
Agenda
BUSINESS
Trend
Startup booster
China
MANUFACTURING
RTM
WPC
Sandwich
Feature Automotive - El dorado, or a lure
3D printing
Cycle time
Raw materials
Reinforcements
Compression moulding
Compression moulding
Lightweighting
Interior part
SOLUTIONS
Marine
Motorcycle
Medical
In the world
TECHNOLOGY
OPLC
Draping
Damping
Index
Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Opinion: Mobility
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Startup competition
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Construction & public transport
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Investment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Agenda
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Trend
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Startup booster
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - RTM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - WPC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Sandwich
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 3D printing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Cycle time
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Raw materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Reinforcements
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Compression moulding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Compression moulding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Lightweighting
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Interior part
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Marine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Motorcycle
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Medical
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - OPLC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Draping
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Damping
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - Advertisers
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #110 - January/February 2017 - 59
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2001_132
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_Special_Issue2
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_131
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1909_130
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1907_129
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1905_128
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_Special_Issue1
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_127
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1901_126
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1811_125
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1810_124
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1808_123
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1807_122
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1805_121
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1804_120
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1803_119
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1802_119-Supplement_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1801_118
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1711_117
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1710_116
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1708_115
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1707_114
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1706_113
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1704_112
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1703_111
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1701_110
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1611_109
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1610_108
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1608_107
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1607_106
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1605_105
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1604_104
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1603_103
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1601_102
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1511_101
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1510_100
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1509_99
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1507_98
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1505_97
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1504_96
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1503_95
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1501_94
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1412_93
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1410_92
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1409_91
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1406_90
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1405_89
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1404_88
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1403_87
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1401_86
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1311_85
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1310_84
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1308_83
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1307_82
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1305_81
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1304_80
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1303_79
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1301_78
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1212_77
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1210_76
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1208_75
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1207_74
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1206_73
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1204_72
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1203_71
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1201_70
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1111_69
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1110_68
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1108_67
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1107_66
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1105_65
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1104_64
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1103_63
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1101_62
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1011_61
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1010_60
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1009_59
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1006_58
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1005_57
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1004_56
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1003_55
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1001_54
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0911_53
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0910_52
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0909_51
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0907-08_50
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0906_49
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0904_48
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0903_47
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0901_46
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0811_45
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0810_44
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0809_43
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0807_42
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0806_41
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0805_40
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0803_39
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0801_38
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0712_37
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0710_36
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0709_35
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0707_34
http://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0706_33
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com