JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 53

NDT

Fast and reliable non-destructive
inspection of composites

By

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) allows for fast and reliable
non-destructive inspection of a broad range of flaws in thick
monolithic components or complex composite structures. Initially developed for aeronautics, XPCI also finds applications in the
automotive, space, medical technology and oil & gas industries.

VINCENT REVOL,
PROJECT MANAGER, CSEM SA, ALPNACH
ANA MARIA MADRIGAL,
HEAD OF AERONAUTICS PROGRAM, CSEM SA
ON BEHALF OF THE EVITA CONSORTIUM

T

he use of composite components is
progressing in new applications and
markets thanks to their high strengthto-weight ratio, high corrosion resistance
and durability, among others. New manufacturing processes make it possible to accelerate production, lower costs and create more
complex shapes and material combinations.

Non-destructive inspection
As composite materials evolve, non-destructive inspection (NDI) with conventional
techniques is becoming more and more
challenging due to the variety of defects, material combinations and complex geometries
(Frost & Sullivan 2013). While standards
and norms exist for metallic parts, there is
a need to develop new NDI techniques for
composites to keep pace with the needs of
end-users, in particular for safety-critical
components. But beyond simply ensuring
safety and reliability, the benefits of NDI
also include shorter development and validation cycles, improved production yields,
reduced waste, lower part weight and an
improved understanding of failure modes.
Within the European project EVITA, a new
NDI technology called grating-based X-ray
phase contrast imaging (XPCI) was devel-

oped for the non-destructive evaluation and
inspection of primary aeronautical composite structures (CSEM 2015). The technique
is now finding widespread applications in
the automotive, space, medical technology
and oil & gas industries.
Compared to other NDI methods, XPCI
provides a unique solution for the fast and
reliable inspection in large composite components (meter-size) of structural defects
such as porosity, cracks, fibre misalignment,
missing foam in sandwiches, or resin rich/
poor areas. An example of impact damage
detection on a carbon fibre-reinforced
polymer (CFRP) panel is shown in Figure
1. The microscopic cracks caused by the
impact can be well detected in the scattering
image (right) while they stay invisible in the
conventional X-ray image (left)

X-ray phase contrast imaging
Compared to conventional X-ray systems,
XPCI measures tiny changes in the phase
front of the X-ray beam propagating through
the sample. This new contrast mechanism
is based on the use of a grating interferometer (Pfeiffer et al. 2006; Revol et al. 2010),
which combines a conventional X-ray source
and detector with transmission gratings.
As shown in Figure 2, the first grating (G1)
creates an interference pattern that can be

Fig. 1: X-ray phase contrast radiography images
of a 5J impact damage on a 3mm-thick CFPR
laminate.

Main features
- Contact-free transmission NDI technique
without coupling agent
- Able to inspect thick composite
components (wall thickness >30mm)
- Able to inspect complex shapes
- High contrast for lightweight materials
- Sensitive to micro- and macrostructural
features such porosity, cracks, foams or
fibre misalignment
- Inspection speed up to 5m2/hr with
further speed improvements planned in
future system generations

No106 July 2016 / jec

composites magazine 53



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016

Cover
Edito
Point of view: Europe
Contents
COMPANY & BUSINESS
Development
Agenda of Events
APPLICATIONS
Thermoplastics
Automotive
MARKET
Aircraft engine
FEATURE AERONAUTICS
Aerostructures
Characterisation
Thermoplastics
Aero-engines
Process
CFRP
Semi-product
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Review
Core material
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
NDT
Marine
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Ad1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Point of view: Europe
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - COMPANY & BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Development
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - AdHEC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - AdCro
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Thermoplastics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Automotive
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Aircraft engine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Aerostructures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Characterisation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Thermoplastics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Aero-engines
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - CFRP
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Semi-product
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Review
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Core material
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - NDT
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Marine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 59
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2009_136
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2007_135
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm_2020_Q1_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2005_Special_Issue3
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2005_134
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2003_133
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2001_132
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_Special_Issue2
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_131
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1909_130
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1907_129
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1905_128
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_Special_Issue1
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_127
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1901_126
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1811_125
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1810_124
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1808_123
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1807_122
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1805_121
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1804_120
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1803_119
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1802_119-Supplement_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1801_118
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1711_117
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1710_116
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1708_115
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1707_114
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1706_113
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1704_112
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1703_111
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1701_110
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1611_109
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1610_108
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1608_107
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1607_106
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1605_105
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1604_104
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1603_103
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1601_102
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1511_101
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1510_100
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1509_99
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1507_98
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1505_97
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1504_96
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1503_95
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1501_94
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1412_93
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1410_92
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1409_91
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1406_90
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1405_89
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1404_88
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1403_87
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1401_86
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1311_85
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1310_84
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1308_83
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1307_82
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1305_81
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1304_80
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1303_79
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1301_78
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1212_77
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1210_76
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1208_75
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1207_74
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1206_73
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1204_72
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1203_71
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1201_70
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1111_69
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1110_68
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1108_67
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1107_66
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1105_65
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1104_64
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1103_63
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1101_62
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1011_61
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1010_60
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1009_59
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1006_58
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1005_57
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1004_56
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1003_55
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1001_54
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0911_53
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0910_52
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0909_51
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0907-08_50
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0906_49
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0904_48
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0903_47
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0901_46
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0811_45
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0810_44
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0809_43
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0807_42
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0806_41
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0805_40
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0803_39
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0801_38
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0712_37
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0710_36
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0709_35
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0707_34
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0706_33
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com