JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 49

Application of FRP using wet lay-up technique for the strengthening of concrete
tunnel (Photo kindly supplied by QuakeWrap, Inc. / FRP Construction, LLC)

slightly increase the stiffness and strength of laminates through
the post-cure of the matrix resin.

Conclusions
It has been observed that the results of durability studies on
FRP materials for construction do not always agree, possibly
due to the different curing/conditioning conditions employed
for the matrix/adhesive resin. In fact, several published studies
do no report sufficient details on the curing conditions (temperature and time) employed for the matrix before its environmental exposure. In other studies, generic "FRP" laminates are
reported, without specifying whether the matrix is hot- or coldcured, and whether the composite was previously produced by
an industrial process employing controlled high-temperature
curing cycles or manually applied by wet lay-up at "uncontrolled" ambient temperature. The durability of polymeric
composites manufactured by different techniques could even
be significantly different and this can partly justify the observed
discrepancies.
Finally, many of the durability experiments are conducted
according to standard procedures that are not appropriate for
the particular systems, due to the lack of specifically designed
standards for polymers used in civil engineering applications.
Although standards and data from previous investigations in
many areas (aeronautical, aerospace, automotive, etc.) can
be useful, they are not directly applicable. There is an urgent
need, therefore, to develop durability standards and guidelines
pertinent to these specific applications and related exposure
conditions. n
Contact:
mariaenrica.frigione@unisalento.it

References
M.A. Aiello, M. Frigione, D. Acierno (2002). "Effects of environmental conditions on performance of polymeric adhesives for
restoration of concrete structures", ASCE J. Mater. Civil Eng., 14,
185-189.
T. Almusallam, Y. Al-Salloum (2006). "Durability of GFRP Rebars
in Concrete Beams under Sustained Loads at Severe Environments", J. Compos. Mater., 40, 623-637, 2006.
M. Frigione, C. Naddeo, D. Acierno (2000). "Epoxy resins employed in civil engineering applications: Effects of exposure to
mild temperatures", Mater. Eng., 11, 59-80.
M. Frigione, C. Naddeo, D. Acierno (2001). "Cold-curing epoxy resins: Aging and environmental effects. I - Thermal properties",
J. Polym. Eng., 21, 23-51.
M. Frigione, M.A. Aiello, C. Naddeo (2006a). "Water effects on
the bond strength of concrete/concrete adhesive joints", Constr.
Build. Mater., 20, 957-970.
M. Frigione, M. Lettieri, A.M. Mecchi (2006b). "Environmental effects on epoxy adhesives employed for restoration of historical
buildings", ASCE J. Mater. Civil Eng., 18, 715-722.
L.C. Hollaway (2010). "A review of the present and future
utilization of FRP composites in the civil infrastructure with
reference to their important in-service properties", Constr. Build.
Mater., 24, 2419-2445.
V. M. Karbhari (2002). "Durability of FRP composites for civil
infrastructure - Myth, mystery or reality." Proc., 1st Int. Conf.
of Advanced Polymer Composites for Structural Applications in
Construction, R. A. Shenoi, S. S. Moy, and L. C. Hollaway, eds.,
Southampton Univ., Thomas Telford, U.K., 33-43.
V.M. Karbhari (2005). Building materials for the renewal of civil
infrastructure, Reinf. Plast., January 14-25.
M. Leone, M. Stijn, M.A. Aiello (2009). "Effect of elevated
service temperature on bond between FRP EBR systems and
concrete", Compos. Part B, 40, 85-93.
M. Lettieri, M. Frigione (2012). "Effects of humid environment
on thermal and mechanical properties of a cold-curing epoxy
resin", Constr. and Build. Mater., 30, 753-760.
O. Moussa, A.P. Vassilopoulos, T. Keller (2012). "Effects of
low-temperature curing on physical behavior of cold-curing
epoxy adhesives in bridge construction", Int. J. Adhes. Adhes.,
32, 15-22.
M.S. Sciolti, M. Frigione, M.A. Aiello (2010). "Wet lay-up manufactured FRP's for concrete and masonry repair. Influence
of water on the properties of composites and of their epoxy
components", ASCE J. Compos. Constr., 14, 823-833.
H-C. Shin, H. Miyauchi, K. Tanaka (2011). "An experimental study
of fatigue resistance in epoxy injection for cracked mortar and
concrete considering the temperature effect", Constr. Build.
Mater., 25, 1316-1324.
T. Uomoto, (2003). "Durability design of GFRP rods for concrete
reinforcement", Proc., 6th Int. Symp. on FRP Reinforcement
for Concrete Structures, FRPRCS-6, World Scientific, Singapore,
37-50.

No106 July 2016 / jec

composites magazine 49



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016

Cover
Edito
Point of view: Europe
Contents
COMPANY & BUSINESS
Development
Agenda of Events
APPLICATIONS
Thermoplastics
Automotive
MARKET
Aircraft engine
FEATURE AERONAUTICS
Aerostructures
Characterisation
Thermoplastics
Aero-engines
Process
CFRP
Semi-product
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Review
Core material
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
NDT
Marine
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Ad1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Point of view: Europe
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - COMPANY & BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Development
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - AdHEC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - AdCro
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Thermoplastics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Automotive
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Aircraft engine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Aerostructures
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Characterisation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Thermoplastics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Aero-engines
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - CFRP
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Semi-product
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Review
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Core material
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - NDT
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Marine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #106 - July 2016 - 59
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