JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 42

welding

Fig. 6: Overview of the user interface developed for continuous induction welding

possible settings of control temperature depending on joining speed.
Based on the calculated process diagrams, a user interface was
designed to provide end-users with a simplified determination of
the optimal process settings. In order to avoid long calculation times,
a number of pre-calculated settings with fixed material properties,
design values and boundary conditions were implemented within the
user interface.
The user interface consists of four sections (Fig. 6). In the first section, data from an already calculated process diagram can be selected.
For a new type of material, a new process diagram can be deduced
based on the pre-calculated process diagrams. If a new material differs
in major parameters such as thermal conductivity or heat capacity,
a completely new 3D-FE simulation is necessary to generate the
respective process diagram. The state of joining will be calculated by
the user interface after the process speed and control temperature
have been chosen. The power input of the generator is derived from
the chosen operating parameters.
The second section shows the fixed parameters. These parameters are
the material and thickness of the adherends and of the tool, the coil
design used and its position, and the air jet cooling volume flow. The
Tab. 1: Errors between FEA and test data

Process speed
(mm/min)

Control temperature
(°C)

Coil-roller distance
(mm)

200

145

35

350

150

50

450

165

75

respective process diagram with the
chosen operating point is shown in
the third section. Finally, the state of
joining is displayed as two graphics
in the fourth section. The upper one
shows a schematic side view of the
equipment positions. The lower one
shows a top view of the joining area.
The user interface distinguishes three
conditions concerning the state of
joining in Section 4 (Fig. 6). All three
conditions can occur simultaneously
in the overlap area. At the periphery
of the overlap area, the adherends are
not bonded because the local temperature is too low. If the temperature
in the joining area in front of the
roller is still between the crystallization and degradation temperatures
and the temperature in the overlap
area behind the roller stays under the
crystallization temperature, bonding
will be indicated as "good". If the temperature is too high, bonding
will be indicated as "too hot" because either polymer degradation or
voids will occur. In addition, the user interface submits the percentage of "good" indicated bonding areas in relation to the complete
joining width.

Verification of the user interface
Tensile shear tests were carried out to verify the user interface created. The tested specimens were produced by means of continuous
induction welding according to EN 1465:2009. To produce the
specimens, two organic sheets with an overlap of 12.5 mm and a
width of 100 mm were joined. The organic sheets consisted of carbon
textile-reinforced polyamide 66 with a fibre volume content of 50 %.
The textile used was a 285 g/m2 satin 1/4 fabric from Tencate. The
bonded organic sheets were then cut into four specimens with a
width of 25 mm each. The specimens were numbered according
to their position in the bonded organic sheet. The process feed
proceeded in the direction from Specimen 1 to 4. Based on the user
interface, specimens with different parameter sets were produced to
compare the predicted and tested results (Table 1).
Fig. 7 shows the calculated and measured tensile shear strength
as well as views of the joining area. Minor matrix squeeze-out and
local surface melting took place at all process speeds. However, the
matrix squeeze-out did not cause voids. Small voids only occurred at
processing speeds of 450 mm/min in the joining area. Indeed, this
result concurs with the user interface's predictions. The small areas
of surface melting have led to local and minor delaminations of the
surface. However, this result is not predicted by the process simulation. This discrepancy is caused by inhomogeneities that occur in the
real composite structure and effect local temperature maximums. In

42 jec composites magazine / No101 November - December 2015



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015

Cover
Edito
Point of view : Developing advice
Contents
COMPANY & BUSINESS
In brief
Agenda of Events
APPLICATIONS
Golf
Sustainability
Bicycle
Mountain
MARKET
Japan
Brazil
FEATURE BUILDING & CONSTRUCTION
Floor
Antibacterial
Medical
Graphene
Design
Environment
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Ageing
Welding
Welding
Simulation
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
Process
Green composites
Nano
Compound
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Point of view : Developing advice
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Ad1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Ad2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Golf
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Sustainability
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Bicycle
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Mountain
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Japan
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Brazil
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Floor
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Antibacterial
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Medical
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Graphene
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Design
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Ageing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Welding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Welding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Green composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Nano
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Compound
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 60
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