JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 30

design
as changing water currents, to provide a safe
and stable habitat for the spider. This natural production process shows how adaptive
fabrication strategies can be utilized to create efficient fibre-reinforced structures.

Self-supporting
monocoque structure
For the transfer of this biological formation
sequence into a building construction application, a process was developed in which
an industrial robot is placed within an
air-supported membrane envelope made of
ETFE. This inflated soft shell is initially supported by air pressure, though, by robotically reinforcing the inside with carbon fibre, it
is gradually stiffened into a self-supporting
monocoque structure. The carbon fibres
are only selectively applied where they are
required for structural reinforcement, and
the pneumatic formwork is simultaneously
used as a functionally-integrated building
skin. This results in a resource-efficient
construction process.

Computational design
At the beginning of the design and construction process, the shell geometry and
main fibre bundle locations are generated
by a computational form-finding method,
which integrates fabrication constraints and
structural simulation. In order to determine
and adjust the fibre layouts, a computational agent-based design method has been
developed. Similar to the spider, a digital
agent navigates the surface shell geometry,
generating a proposed robot path for the

fibre placement. The agent behaviour is
derived from a variety of interrelated design
parameters. This computational design
process enables the designer to navigate
and simultaneously integrate these design
parameters into various effective fibre orientations and densities.

Prototypical robotic
fabrication process
Corresponding to the adaptive computational design strategy, a prototypical
robotic fabrication process was developed
for carbon fibre reinforcement on the inside
of a flexible membrane. The changing
stiffness of the pneumatic formwork and
the resulting fluctuations in deformation
during the fibre placement process pose a
particular challenge to the robot control system. In order to adapt to these parameters
during the production process, the current
position and contact force are recorded via
an embedded sensor system and integrated
into the robot control system in real time.
The development of such a cyber-physical
system allows constant feedback between
the actual production conditions and the
digital generation of robot control codes.
This represents not only an important development in the context of this project, but
more generally provides new opportunities
for adaptive robotic construction processes.

Architectural design process
The prototypical character of the fabrication
process required the development of a custom-made robot tool that allows placement

of carbon fibres based on integrated sensor
data. The technical development of this tool
became an integral part of the architectural
design process. This process also posed
special challenges for the material system.
ETFE was identified as a suitable material
for the pneumatic formwork and integrated
building envelope, since it is a durable facade material and its mechanical properties
minimize plastic deformation during the
fibre placement. A high degree of functional
integration is achieved through the use of
the ETFE film as pneumatic formwork and
building envelope. This saves the material
consumption of conventional formwork
techniques as well as an additional façade
installation. A composite adhesive provided
a proper bond between the ETFE film and
the carbon fibres. During production, nine
pre-impregnated carbon fibre rovings were
placed in parallel. 45 km of carbon roving
were laid at an average speed of 0.6 m per
minute on 5 km of robot path. This additive
process not only allows stress-oriented
placement of the fibre composite material,
but it also minimizes the construction
waste associated with typically subtractive
construction processes. The ICD/ITKE
Research Pavilion 2014-15 covers an area
of about 40 m² and an internal volume of
approximately 130 m³, with a span of 7.5 m
and a height of 4.1 m. The total construction weight is just 260 kg, which corresponds to a weight of 6.5 kg/m².

An expressive
architectural demonstrator
The ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15
serves as a demonstrator for advanced computational design, simulation and manufacturing techniques and shows the innovative
potential of interdisciplinary research and
teaching. The prototypical building articulates the anisotropic character of the fibre
composite material as an architectural quality and reflects the underlying processes
in a novel texture and structure. The result
is not only a particularly material-effective
construction, but also an innovative and
expressive architectural demonstrator. n

Prototypical robotic fabrication process was developed for carbon fibre reinforcement on the inside of a
flexible membrane

30 jec composites magazine / No101 November - December 2015

More information:
www.icd.uni-stuttgart.de


http://www.icd.uni-stuttgart.de

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015

Cover
Edito
Point of view : Developing advice
Contents
COMPANY & BUSINESS
In brief
Agenda of Events
APPLICATIONS
Golf
Sustainability
Bicycle
Mountain
MARKET
Japan
Brazil
FEATURE BUILDING & CONSTRUCTION
Floor
Antibacterial
Medical
Graphene
Design
Environment
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Ageing
Welding
Welding
Simulation
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
Process
Green composites
Nano
Compound
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Point of view : Developing advice
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Ad1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Ad2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Golf
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Sustainability
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Bicycle
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Mountain
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Japan
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Brazil
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Floor
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Antibacterial
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Medical
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Graphene
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Design
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Ageing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Welding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Welding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Green composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Nano
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Compound
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #101 - November/December 2015 - 60
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