JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 75

permeability

Why measure permeability?

Permeability is one of a reinforcement's intrinsic properties that
must be controlled during the manufacture of a part made of a
composite material. This property can be illustrated as the average cross section of the microchannels where the resin flows
during reinforcement impregnation in liquid composite moulding
(LCM) technologies such as RTM.

P

ermeability needs to be accurately
measured in order to create more
reliable optimized simulations
that will lead to zero-defects prototypes,
thereby minimizing cost and development time. Permeability measurement
can also serve as a control parameter for
reinforcement quality, or to compare
reinforcements.
Two types of permeability have been
identified, in-plane (X, Y) and throughplane (Z). Familiarity with both of these
is essential for modelling various injection configurations, shown below.

Easyperm,
the 3D permeability test bench
The Easyperm 3D permeability test
bench is a stand-alone tool that provides

Fig. 1: Longitudinal injection

an industrial solution for measuring the
through-plane (Z) and in-plane (X, Y)
permeability of a dry reinforcement. It is
used to assess the capacity of a reinforcement to be impregnated by a liquid resin.
This can serve in the characterization
of all types of fibre, e.g. glass, carbon or
aramid.
Features of the bench include viewing
windows placed in the top mould to
enable visual inspection of the impregnation process, and an adjustable mould
cavity thickness, which makes it possible
to adjust the fibre volume content during
the measuring process. The permeability
measurement generated by the bench is
based on the change in pressure during
the injection, according to Darcy's Law.

By

Jérôme raynal
SaleS and export director,
aurélien philippe,
engineering team manager
ppe

mould, injection initiates centrally from
a perforation located at the centre of the
test piece, so as to avoid any throughplane permeability. Five piezoelectric
pressure sensors placed in the bottom
mould cavity are used to assess the
permeability. An Easyperm-dedicated
software programme makes it possible
to calculate the permeability using data
acquisition: the software serves to monitor the progression of the reference oil

In-plane (X,Y)
measurement with Easyperm
After the reinforcement is placed in the

Radial injection

3D injection

Fig. 2: The Easyperm 3D permeability test bench is
based on a patented measurement concept with X,
Y and Z axes

No100 October 2015 / jec

composites magazine 75



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015

Cover
Edito
Point of view: The future of mass production
Contents
Companies & Business
In brief
Agenda of Events
Applications
Music - An innovative resin for the music industry
Sports & leisure - New quartz fibe prepreg material for a watch
Market
Asia - China & India: two demographic giants in very different composites markets
Industrial property - Statistical patent analysis for composite material shaping
SPECIAL JEC ASIA
15th International JEC Conferences
JEC Asia Innovation Awards Awards 2015
Education - Successful advanced composites projects in Singapore
Process - Reduction of cure cycle time through microwave curing
FEATURE
Propeller - Interchangeable motorboat propel-ler blades made of composites
Revival - The world’s fastest sailing yacht
NDTNon-destructive testing of composites benefits boat acing
Fast boat - A new generation of fast, fuel-efficient boat
Bonding - Primerless structural adhe-sives gain DNV-GL approval for marine applications
Core material - Rowing solo across the pacifi in a 24-foot boat
Research & Development
Damage - Prediction in- and out-of-plane damage in fibe-reinforced composites
Recycling - Using steam thermolysis to recycle carbon fibes from composite waste
Technology & Innovations
Thermoplastic - Easy handling, high- performance thermoplastic solutions for composites
Permeability - Why measure permeability?
Polyurethane - Polyurethane prepregs for cost-effective lightweight construction
Pipe - A new standard in multilayer composite pipe productivity
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Point of view: The future of mass production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Music - An innovative resin for the music industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Sports & leisure - New quartz fibe prepreg material for a watch
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Asia - China & India: two demographic giants in very different composites markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Industrial property - Statistical patent analysis for composite material shaping
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 15th International JEC Conferences
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - JEC Asia Innovation Awards Awards 2015
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Education - Successful advanced composites projects in Singapore
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Process - Reduction of cure cycle time through microwave curing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Propeller - Interchangeable motorboat propel-ler blades made of composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Revival - The world’s fastest sailing yacht
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - NDTNon-destructive testing of composites benefits boat acing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Fast boat - A new generation of fast, fuel-efficient boat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Bonding - Primerless structural adhe-sives gain DNV-GL approval for marine applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Core material - Rowing solo across the pacifi in a 24-foot boat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Damage - Prediction in- and out-of-plane damage in fibe-reinforced composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Recycling - Using steam thermolysis to recycle carbon fibes from composite waste
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 69
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 70
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 71
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Thermoplastic - Easy handling, high- performance thermoplastic solutions for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 73
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 74
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Permeability - Why measure permeability?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 76
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 77
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Polyurethane - Polyurethane prepregs for cost-effective lightweight construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 79
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Pipe - A new standard in multilayer composite pipe productivity
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 83
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 84
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