JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 65

Fig. 2: Resulting nonlinear resin response as a function of shear strain (left: shear stress, middle: resin damage, right: plastic shear strain)

proprietary damage initiation law has been derived based on the
assumption that fibre micro-buckling is dependent on compressive fibre strain, effective resin stiffness (including resin plasticity
and damage) and out-of-plane strains (compressive out-of-plane
strains are assumed to inhibit micro-buckling and tensile strains
are assumed to promote micro-buckling). The resin is assumed to
have an elasto-plastic behaviour, with linear elastic behaviour up to
the point where the material starts to plastically deform. Both resin
damage and plasticity are assumed to depend on the in-plane resin
von Mises stress.
Mesh dependency
When a material becomes damaged, part of the material can no
longer carry any loads, so that the effective stiffness of the material decreases. Analyses with such softening behaviour normally
show a high mesh dependency (giving different results for different
mesh densities). Two different techniques are used to alleviate this
problem: the Hillerborg's fracture energy proposal (Hillerborg et
al., 1976) is used for the tensile failure of the fibres and a non-local
method (e.g. Pijaudier-Cabot and Bazant, 1987) is used for the
compression failure of the fibres. In the non-local method, the
local strain that determines the damage initiation is replaced by a
non-local strain. When modelling failure in composites, next to
alleviating mesh dependency there is another reason to use a nonlocal method. For micro-buckling of the fibres to occur, high strains
or stresses should be present over a certain length of the fibre. As
the non-local method uses an average strain over a certain area, it
will automatically filter out very local strain peaks.
Delaminations
Another important failure mechanism in composites is delamination. Mode 1 delaminations are assumed to occur due to excessive
tensile out-of-plane stresses alone. The initiation and growth of
Mode 2 delaminations in composites is mainly governed by transverse shear stresses. However, compressive out-of-plane stresses
are known to inhibit the initiation and growth of Mode 2 delaminations while tensile out-of-plane stresses are known to promote
the initiation and growth of Mode 2 delaminations (Lecuyer and
Engrand, 1992). The above assumptions are used to derive new
cohesive failure laws.

Fig. 3. Top: force-displacement graph of peel test; bottom: force-displacement
graphs of ILS3 3-point bending test (blue=no damage; red=failed)

Implementation in Abaqus and general model description
The material model was implemented in Abaqus/Standard 6.14-3
using the UMAT and USDFLD user subroutines. Each ply was
modelled as a separate element layer. The layers were tied together
using cohesive surfaces (including damage initiation and growth).
Boundary conditions were chosen such that they mimic the test
conditions most accurately.
Determination of unknown material parameters
A composite material consisting of a combination of a quasi-UD
No100 October 2015 /

jec composites magazine 65



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015

Cover
Edito
Point of view: The future of mass production
Contents
Companies & Business
In brief
Agenda of Events
Applications
Music - An innovative resin for the music industry
Sports & leisure - New quartz fibe prepreg material for a watch
Market
Asia - China & India: two demographic giants in very different composites markets
Industrial property - Statistical patent analysis for composite material shaping
SPECIAL JEC ASIA
15th International JEC Conferences
JEC Asia Innovation Awards Awards 2015
Education - Successful advanced composites projects in Singapore
Process - Reduction of cure cycle time through microwave curing
FEATURE
Propeller - Interchangeable motorboat propel-ler blades made of composites
Revival - The world’s fastest sailing yacht
NDTNon-destructive testing of composites benefits boat acing
Fast boat - A new generation of fast, fuel-efficient boat
Bonding - Primerless structural adhe-sives gain DNV-GL approval for marine applications
Core material - Rowing solo across the pacifi in a 24-foot boat
Research & Development
Damage - Prediction in- and out-of-plane damage in fibe-reinforced composites
Recycling - Using steam thermolysis to recycle carbon fibes from composite waste
Technology & Innovations
Thermoplastic - Easy handling, high- performance thermoplastic solutions for composites
Permeability - Why measure permeability?
Polyurethane - Polyurethane prepregs for cost-effective lightweight construction
Pipe - A new standard in multilayer composite pipe productivity
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Point of view: The future of mass production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Music - An innovative resin for the music industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Sports & leisure - New quartz fibe prepreg material for a watch
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Asia - China & India: two demographic giants in very different composites markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Industrial property - Statistical patent analysis for composite material shaping
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 15th International JEC Conferences
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - JEC Asia Innovation Awards Awards 2015
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Education - Successful advanced composites projects in Singapore
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Process - Reduction of cure cycle time through microwave curing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Propeller - Interchangeable motorboat propel-ler blades made of composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Revival - The world’s fastest sailing yacht
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - NDTNon-destructive testing of composites benefits boat acing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Fast boat - A new generation of fast, fuel-efficient boat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Bonding - Primerless structural adhe-sives gain DNV-GL approval for marine applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Core material - Rowing solo across the pacifi in a 24-foot boat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Damage - Prediction in- and out-of-plane damage in fibe-reinforced composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Recycling - Using steam thermolysis to recycle carbon fibes from composite waste
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 69
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 70
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 71
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Thermoplastic - Easy handling, high- performance thermoplastic solutions for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 73
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 74
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Permeability - Why measure permeability?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 76
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 77
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Polyurethane - Polyurethane prepregs for cost-effective lightweight construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 79
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Pipe - A new standard in multilayer composite pipe productivity
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 83
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 84
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