JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 50

education

formulas for penetration depth and generated heat, microwave heating is a very
complex heating system. This system, on
the other hand, offers at least two benefits compared to convection systems
such as ovens or autoclaves. Foremost,
the heat is usually directly generated
in the processed material. This way, no
energy is wasted for heating up auxiliary
materials. Likewise, the reaction time of
the heating system is not influenced by
a support material or heat conduction.
The moment the microwave source is
turned on, heat is generated inside the
material.

State of the art
In 2014, Thomas Herkner from GKN
Aerospace Munich, Germany, reported
the company's latest findings in the area
of microwave curing [2]. With a CFRP
cure mould and adjusted bagging, GKN
manufactured a demonstration component using out-of-autoclave prepregs
and an industrial microwave applicator
by Vötsch Industrietechnik. Overall, a
cycle time reduction of 6h or 50% in
comparison to the autoclave cure cycle
was reached, while, according to the
presentation, up to 80% reduction in
energy consumption seems feasible.
These findings are confirmed by the
latest results for microwave curing of
carbon fibre-reinforced plastic parts. In
a research project called FLAME (Fibre
composite Lightweight construction
with Automated Microwave process
technology of high Energy efficiency),
funded by the German Federal Ministry

Fig. 3: Filament-wound part on a microwave-compatible turning steel tool and after
microwave cure (pictures provided by Schunk
Kohlenstofftechnik GmbH)

Fig. 4: The VHM 180/200 microwave applicator of the Munich Institute for Carbon Composites and its
capabilities

of Education and Research (BMBF),
the reliable curing of filament-wound
parts with wall thicknesses between
3 mm and 21 mm was achieved (see
Figure 3). The mechanical properties of
the microwave-cured parts matched the
mechanical properties of conventionally
oven-cured ones. The heat-through time,
however, was reduced by up to 85% and
the total energy consumption of the process could be reduced by up to 75% [3].

Microwave research
capabilities in Munich
Within the FLAME project, the Institute for Carbon Composites (LCC) of
the Technische Universität München
(TUM) decided to purchase a Hephaistos VHM 180/200 microwave
applicator. After prior work with similar
equipment at the Karlsruher Institute of
Technology (KIT), former project partner of the LCC in FLAME, the Munich
institute has been working with its own
microwave applicator (Figure 4) since
the beginning of 2015. The microwave
applicator used has an inner volume of
4.2 m3, a total microwave power of 24
kW installed, can control temperatures
up to 800°C, and has a wide range of
process control possibilities. With its
size and capabilities, it allows intense research according to the industrial needs
of the future.

50 jec composites magazine / No100 October 2015

Current challenges for
microwave heating of composites
The main challenge for the introduction
of microwave heating is that different
ways of thinking have to be applied. As
the possibilities and the potential of the
heating technology increase, the systems
become more complicated. For comparison, conventional heating systems
such as ovens, autoclaves, hot presses,
or fluid-heated systems mainly define
the process temperature according to
the system's temperature. After a time,
part and tool temperature attune. This
makes temperature control rather easy
and understandable. With microwave
heating, the temperature depends on
many factors. When a constant microwave field is applied, the temperature
of materials rises until an equilibrium
between the energy generated inside
the material and the heat transfer to the
environment is reached. This temperature level, however, depends on too
many factors to be predicted for any
part-tool combination. The first step to
solve this challenge was the design of
the Hephaistos Microwave System by
KIT and Vötsch Industrietechnik. The
fully controllable multi-mode microwave applicator has sufficient size and
capabilities to process larger parts. By
providing a homogenous field of variable
strength, the processing of simple parts



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015

Cover
Edito
Point of view: The future of mass production
Contents
Companies & Business
In brief
Agenda of Events
Applications
Music - An innovative resin for the music industry
Sports & leisure - New quartz fibe prepreg material for a watch
Market
Asia - China & India: two demographic giants in very different composites markets
Industrial property - Statistical patent analysis for composite material shaping
SPECIAL JEC ASIA
15th International JEC Conferences
JEC Asia Innovation Awards Awards 2015
Education - Successful advanced composites projects in Singapore
Process - Reduction of cure cycle time through microwave curing
FEATURE
Propeller - Interchangeable motorboat propel-ler blades made of composites
Revival - The world’s fastest sailing yacht
NDTNon-destructive testing of composites benefits boat acing
Fast boat - A new generation of fast, fuel-efficient boat
Bonding - Primerless structural adhe-sives gain DNV-GL approval for marine applications
Core material - Rowing solo across the pacifi in a 24-foot boat
Research & Development
Damage - Prediction in- and out-of-plane damage in fibe-reinforced composites
Recycling - Using steam thermolysis to recycle carbon fibes from composite waste
Technology & Innovations
Thermoplastic - Easy handling, high- performance thermoplastic solutions for composites
Permeability - Why measure permeability?
Polyurethane - Polyurethane prepregs for cost-effective lightweight construction
Pipe - A new standard in multilayer composite pipe productivity
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Point of view: The future of mass production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Music - An innovative resin for the music industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Sports & leisure - New quartz fibe prepreg material for a watch
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Asia - China & India: two demographic giants in very different composites markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Industrial property - Statistical patent analysis for composite material shaping
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 15th International JEC Conferences
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - JEC Asia Innovation Awards Awards 2015
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Education - Successful advanced composites projects in Singapore
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Process - Reduction of cure cycle time through microwave curing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Propeller - Interchangeable motorboat propel-ler blades made of composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Revival - The world’s fastest sailing yacht
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - NDTNon-destructive testing of composites benefits boat acing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Fast boat - A new generation of fast, fuel-efficient boat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Bonding - Primerless structural adhe-sives gain DNV-GL approval for marine applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Core material - Rowing solo across the pacifi in a 24-foot boat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Damage - Prediction in- and out-of-plane damage in fibe-reinforced composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Recycling - Using steam thermolysis to recycle carbon fibes from composite waste
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 69
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 70
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 71
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Thermoplastic - Easy handling, high- performance thermoplastic solutions for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 73
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 74
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Permeability - Why measure permeability?
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 76
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 77
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Polyurethane - Polyurethane prepregs for cost-effective lightweight construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 79
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Pipe - A new standard in multilayer composite pipe productivity
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 83
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #100 - Special JEC Asia - October 2015 - 84
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