JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 82

natural fibre

problems encountered when applying these materials to engineering practice, and how fibre morphology affects the mechanical behaviour of the resulting composites.

Materials and methods
The experimental characterization was carried out on two different natural-fibre-reinforced composites. These are referred to as Case 1 and 2. Case 1 Laminates used in Case 1 consisted of hybrid composites reinforced with glass and jute fibres manufactured by resin transfer moulding. Plain-woven jute fabric (300 g/m2) and E-glass (Vetrotex VR38, 290 g/ m2) were used as reinforcement. The resin was an unsaturated polyester (1629 NT from Lonza). Two different configurations (labelled as Q and T) were obtained, for which stacking sequences and characteristics are summarized in Table 1. From the plates, four-point bend specimens were obtained with 150-mm length, 30-mm width and 5(±0.2)-mm thickness. Specimens from T and Q laminates were impacted and then subjected to post-impact four-point bending tests. Impact tests were performed using an instrumented impact tower fitted with an anti-rebound device. Four different impact energies were considered: 5, 10, 12.5 and 15 J. The flexural tests were carried out in accordance with the ASTM D-790 standard, using a universal testing machine (Zwick Roell Z010) with a support span length of 140 mm and a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Post-impact flexural tests were monitored by AE until final fracture occurred using an AMSY-5 AE system from Vallen Systeme GmbH. The AE acquisition settings used throughout were as follows: threshold = 35 dB, RT (rearm time) = 0.4 ms, DDT (duration discrimination time) = 0.2 ms and total gain = 34 dB. Four PZT AE sensors resonant at 150 kHz were used: two sensors were placed on the surface of the specimens at both ends to allow linear localization, while the other two sensors were used as guard sensors in order to discriminate between AE signals and noise.

82

Case 2 In Case 2, untreated phormium tenax-reinforced epoxy composites were tested. The matrix was an epoxy resin

jec composites magazine / No68 October 2011
Sample name Q T Stacking sequence (G = Glass; J = Jute) Number of jute layers 4 4G/1J/2G/1J/2G/1J/2G/1J/4G 7G/4J/7G 14 4 14

Table 1: Summary of laminate configurations (Case 1)

Number of glass layers

Case 1: jute/glass hybrid laminates In Case 1, the idea was to demonstrate which one of the hybrid configurations – T (sandwich hybrid) or Q (intercalated hybrid) – both with the same amount of plant fibres and therefore with a similar reduction in weight, would prove more suitable to sustain the application of load. Flexural tests demonstrated that T hybrids are superior to Q hybrids at all impact energies by more than 20% both in Table 2: Post-impact flexural strength and AE strength and cumulative-counts "knee" stress for Q and T modulus [7]. glass/jute hybrids impacted at different energies AE analysis was Flexural strength σc (MPa) Specimens focused on the (MPa) measurement of Q0J 209.91±0.37 93.66±3.12 the cumulativeQ5J 172.89±7.18 84.92±9.95 counts curve “knee”: the stress Q10J 160.42±8.98 75.40±7.45 value associated Q12.5J 157.08±10.42 71.07±0.99 with the change Q15J 154.57±3.31 72.50±10.34 in slope of the T0J 269.34±15.47 90.33±6.43 above curve was referred to as σc T5J 244.13±0.69 82.64±4.73 and was T10J 227.43±14.87 79.85±3.11 supposed to be T12.5J 212.76±14.20 80.61±2.56 an acceptable indication of T15J 195.04±18.49 54.50±10.13 the upper limit for materials service. Post-impact flexural and AE test results (σc) are summarized in Table 2. Values of σc were comparable for both the T and Q configurations, representing in general about 30-40% of the maximum strength. However, in the specific Overall fibre case of flexural tests after 15 J impact, the T content [vol %] configuration showed a much lower value of σc than the Q configuration (54.5±10.1 MPa vs. 72.5±10.3 50±2 MPa). Intercalated layers of glass-fibre composite in Q hybrids offer more gradual degradation to the 50±2 material with increasing impact energy, whilst in T hybrids the breakage of jute-fibre core by tearing off of the fibres is the dominating failure mechanism [8]. AE localization plots for Q and T laminates impacted at 15 J are shown in Figures 1 and 2. The AE events are more concentrated

(Ampreg 26) by SP systems. The fibres were cut to a length of approximately 2 cm and randomly arranged in the final composite. The specimens were manufactured using the hand lay-up process in a closed aluminium mould. The final fibre content was 20 wt%. Five specimens (200 mm x 30 mm x 4.5±0.2 mm) were tested in three-point bending on an Instron 5584 at a constant crosshead speed of 2.5 mm/min and with a span-to-thickness ratio of 20:1. These tests were monitored by AE according to what was reported for Case 1.

Results and discussion



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011

Cover
Edito
Point of view: Manufacturing in India
Contents
Agenda of Events
COMPANY & BUSINESS
- In Brief
- Carbon - Melbourne establishes its position in the carbon fibre sector
- Pipes - Amiantit Technology, next-level GRP pipe technology
- Marine - Beachcomber, the marine product specialist
APPLICATIONS
- Construction - New architectural hotel facade designed in GRP
- Automotive - New Pilot Super Sport tyre reinforced with para-aramid fibre
- Pipes - Microtunneling jacking pipes for a combined sewage collector in France
MARKET
- Canada - Canadian Advanced Composites R&D centre continues to grow
- Basalt - Continuous basalt fibre (CBF): a natural fibre for composite applications
- Sustainability - Bilan carbon inventory: factor of competitiveness
Special JEC Asia 2011: the place to be!
FEATURE BI-ANGLE NCF
- The amazing bi-angle thin-ply NCF
- C-PLY™, a new structural approach to multiaxials in composites
- Characterization of the equivalent unidirectional thin ply from NCF
- First prepreg of bi-angle NCF and their mechanical properties
- Pultrusion and Resin Film Infusion (RFI) of bi-angle thin-ply NCF
- Representative test data on bi-angle thin-ply NCF
- Processing bi-angle non-crimp fabrics
- Thin-ply NCF: design for deformation through anisotropy
- Performance enhancement by using a bi-angle composite sandwich beam
- Homogenization made easy with biangle thin-ply NCF
- First and last ply failure predictions by homogenized strength parameters
- Equivalent properties for finite element analysis in composite design
- Predicting the OHT strength of NCF composites
- Thin-ply NCF: design for deformation through anisotropy
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
- Thin-ply NCF: design for deformation through anisotropy
- Filament winding - Development of full composite propulsion systems for UAV take-off
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
- Aeronautics - Managing EMI grounding & lightning strike protection
- Sustainability - Natural-fibre pultruded composites – a revolutionary new wood substitute
- LFT-PP - New coloured, nonhalogenated flame-retardant LFT-PP products
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - Point of view: Manufacturing in India
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - Ad1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - Ad2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - In Brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Carbon - Melbourne establishes its position in the carbon fibre sector
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Pipes - Amiantit Technology, next-level GRP pipe technology
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Marine - Beachcomber, the marine product specialist
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Construction - New architectural hotel facade designed in GRP
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Automotive - New Pilot Super Sport tyre reinforced with para-aramid fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Pipes - Microtunneling jacking pipes for a combined sewage collector in France
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Canada - Canadian Advanced Composites R&D centre continues to grow
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Basalt - Continuous basalt fibre (CBF): a natural fibre for composite applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Sustainability - Bilan carbon inventory: factor of competitiveness
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 29
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - Special JEC Asia 2011: the place to be!
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 34
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - BGCover
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - The amazing bi-angle thin-ply NCF
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - C-PLY™, a new structural approach to multiaxials in composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Characterization of the equivalent unidirectional thin ply from NCF
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - First prepreg of bi-angle NCF and their mechanical properties
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Pultrusion and Resin Film Infusion (RFI) of bi-angle thin-ply NCF
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Representative test data on bi-angle thin-ply NCF
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Processing bi-angle non-crimp fabrics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Thin-ply NCF: design for deformation through anisotropy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Performance enhancement by using a bi-angle composite sandwich beam
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 69
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Homogenization made easy with biangle thin-ply NCF
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 71
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - First and last ply failure predictions by homogenized strength parameters
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 73
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Equivalent properties for finite element analysis in composite design
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 75
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Predicting the OHT strength of NCF composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 77
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Thin-ply NCF: design for deformation through anisotropy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 79
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 80
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Thin-ply NCF: design for deformation through anisotropy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 82
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 83
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Filament winding - Development of full composite propulsion systems for UAV take-off
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 85
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 86
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 87
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 88
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Aeronautics - Managing EMI grounding & lightning strike protection
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 90
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 91
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - Sustainability - Natural-fibre pultruded composites – a revolutionary new wood substitute
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - - LFT-PP - New coloured, nonhalogenated flame-retardant LFT-PP products
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 94
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 95
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - 97
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #68 Special JEC Asia - October 2011 - In the world
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https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm-experts-digest-additive-manufacturing-2020
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https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2009_136
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https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2003_133
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2001_132
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_Special_Issue2
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_131
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1909_130
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1907_129
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1905_128
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_Special_Issue1
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_127
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1901_126
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https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1805_121
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1804_120
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1803_119
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1802_119-Supplement_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1801_118
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1711_117
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1710_116
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1708_115
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1707_114
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1706_113
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1704_112
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1703_111
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1701_110
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1611_109
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1610_108
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1608_107
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https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1604_104
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1603_103
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1601_102
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1511_101
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1510_100
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1509_99
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1507_98
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1505_97
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