JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 55

and matrix. In general, the Young’s modulus of silk fibre/PLA composites, as compared with virgin PLA samples, increases while the tensile strength decreases. Fig. 4: Cocoon shells treated at different Degumming is temperatures normally needed to remove the surface protein layer of animal fibres. This layer may retard the bonding strength and thus, the strength of the composites. Since the cost/kg of animal fibre is relatively high as compared with plant-based fibres, they are normally used in bio-medical engineering applications instead of domestic product development.

Fig. 3: Flight feather fibre (left), down feather fibre (right) from a chicken

Table 2. Properties of animal-based fibres

Animal fibre Spider silk Cocoon silk Wool Human hair: - Elderly - Young

Tensile strength (MPa) 875-972 610-690 120-174

Elongation at break (%) 17-18 40999 25-35

Young’s modulus (MPa) 40117 15-17 2.3-3.4

-----

-----

3.43 4.46

Potential
The potential use of natural-fibre composites is thoughtfully examined in scientific literature and many discussions and initiatives have been ongoing in different countries. The mechanical properties of most plant-fibre-reinforced composites increase when increasing the amount of fibre in the polymer matrix. However, the ultimate

No67 August - September 2011 / jec composites magazine
More information: www.usq.edu.au/ceefc

strength decreases, as reported by different papers. The use of plant- and animal-based fibres in product design and engineering has attracted much attention in bioengineering industries, and comprehensive research has been carried out in this field over the past few years. However, many issues such as their interfacial bonding and stress transfer properties have not yet been solved. To widen the application of these fibres in solving environmental problems, more studies are needed in the future. The Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composites (CEEFC, Australia) has identified “green composites” as one of its focuses. Its work includes projects using natural-fibre composites (both plantand animal-based) and geopolymers. Several projects are currently conducted in co-operation with the industry in the areas of building and construction structures, artificial reef design and development, hemp- and bamboo-fibre-reinforced polymers and bio-degradable and bio-resorbable bone fixators. The ultimate goal is to find other polymer reinforcement alternatives in order to develop new highstrength, low-cost and environmentally-friendly materials for different engineering and product applications. n

55

Research & development


http://www.usq.edu.au/ceefc http://www.recycledcarbonfibre.com

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011

Cover
Edito
Point of view: "I have a very positive view of the market" by Thomas Hedger
Contents
Agenda of Events
COMPANY & BUSINESS
- In Brief
- Automotive
APPLICATIONS
- Aeronautics
- Building & construction
- Sustainability
MARKET
- Composites
- Asia-Pacific
- Resin
-Productivity
-Human Resources
FEATURE MARINE
- Natural Fibre
- Environment
- Race boat
- Simulation
- Coating
- Bonding
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
- Simulation
- Natural Fibre
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
- RTM-S
-Software
- SMC
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Point of view: "I have a very positive view of the market" by Thomas Hedger
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 8
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - PubJEC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - PubESI
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - In Brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Automotive
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Aeronautics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Building & construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Sustainability
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Asia-Pacific
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Resin
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - -Productivity
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - -Human Resources
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Natural Fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Race boat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Coating
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Bonding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Natural Fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - RTM-S
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - -Software
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - SMC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 68
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