JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 26

resin
Fig.1: Aircraft interior panel made of phenolic resin

26

early chopped fibre (wood, cellulose) systems developed by Baekeland and still in existence today are used in phenolic moulding materials available from Sumitomo Bakelite, Plenco, Resinoid, Fenochem, Changshu Southeast Plastics Co., and others for a variety of applications, especially automotive uses such as water pump housing, friction elements, etc. Newer phenolic moulding materials contain glass fibres, metal fibres and, more recently, carbon fibres. The phenolic resin used for moulding materials is a novolak resin with a hexamethylenetetramine curing agent. These chopped-fibre composites are not considered in this publication. The main emphasis of this paper is directed to woven impregnated materials for various applications such as RTM, honeycomb, ballistics, aircraft interior panelling and cargo liners as well as long-fibre components manufactured by filament winding or pultrusion. In most instances, solvent- or water-soluble resole phenolics are the resin of choice for these woven or long-fibre composites. In addition to resoles, other related phenolic resin systems such as

different types of glass like E, R (aerospace mainly), and S; carbon fibres; basalt; and aramides. These fibre reinforcements can be woven, non-woven, or unidirectional in structure or configuration. Phenolic resins are mainly solvent-based (>95%) and, depending on the type of impregnation equipment, the resin content can be between 55 to 70% for vertical impregnation with a lesser resin content for horizontal impregnation. Low volatile content within the resulting prepreg is maintained for both impregnation methods. The use of solvents as a carrier for phenolic resins makes it easy to modify the resin with a variety of additives such as tougheners, flexibilizing agents, surfactants, release agents, coupling agents, flow reducers, fillers such as alumina, pigments, and more A variety of processes are used recently nano-particles. to fabricate components and Tougheners not directly include filament winding, incorporated into the phenolic prepreg, pultrusion, resin are core shell, PES, and honeycomb, compression pre-reacted rubber with moulding, and hand lay-up. phenolics or epoxies. Flexibilizers differ from Prepreg tougheners by providing a The pre-impregnation of fibres modest degree of compatibility with resin is commonly referred within the phenolic matrix to as “prepreg”. Prepregs network and are identified as consist of resins and fibre glycols, caprolactam, polyvinyl reinforcements such as acetals, silicones, and epoxy components. Global prepreggers include Tab.1: Phenolic resin composite processes Cytec, Hexcel, Umeco Group, Process Fabric % resin Use TenCate, SGL Group, Tenax, Glass (E or S-2) Panelling, flooring, cargo Gurit, Krempel, Isovolta, J.D. 30-40 Carbon fibre liners Prepreg Lincoln, Lewcott Corp., Von Aramid, S-2 20-25 Ballistics Roll Group, Guang Wei Composites Co., Gulf Glass, Honeycomb ~50 Sandwich structures carbon fibre, paper Composites Materials (Dubai), and others. Prepregs can be Filament winding Glass, carbon fibre 30-40 Pipe, oil platform, conduit moulded by compression Oil platform decking, FST moulding (high pressure, single Pultrusion Glass 40-50 components or multiple opening presses),

benzoxazines, cyanate esters and the newly developed resin system Calidur™, based on novolak and phenylene bisoxazoline (PBO), are used in FRP. There is a cascading sequence of events that involves a variety of intermediate steps from resin manufacture to the final fabricated phenolic component. Resole resins may be formulated by the resin manufacturer, by an intermediary company for impregnation into prepreg, or by the filament winder or pultruder into a filamentwound unit or a pultruded component. Table 1 shows different types of woven/long fibre processes that require phenolic resole resins, including the type of fibre, phenolic resole resin content, and final use.

jec composites magazine / No67 August - September 2011

oven/vacuum bag moulding, and autoclave/vacuum bag moulding. Recent efforts are being directed to the use of “out-of-autoclave” processing allowing the use of newlymodified phenolic prepregs for low-pressure vacuum bag processing. Reduced capital costs are achieved when eliminating an autoclave. The aircraft industry, with a projected increase in "aircraft builds" for Airbus and Boeing and the expanded use of composites within newer aircraft (~50%), is indicative of the increased need for phenolic composites for aircraft interiors. The service life of interior cabins ranges from 3 to 7 years, and as long as 10 years in some cases. These prepregs are combined with honeycomb core materials to fabricate the interior panels. Despite their higher cost, there are some reports of the use of cyanate ester or benzoxazines to achieve improved surface quality, lighter colour, minimal formaldehyde emissions, less



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011

Cover
Edito
Point of view: "I have a very positive view of the market" by Thomas Hedger
Contents
Agenda of Events
COMPANY & BUSINESS
- In Brief
- Automotive
APPLICATIONS
- Aeronautics
- Building & construction
- Sustainability
MARKET
- Composites
- Asia-Pacific
- Resin
-Productivity
-Human Resources
FEATURE MARINE
- Natural Fibre
- Environment
- Race boat
- Simulation
- Coating
- Bonding
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
- Simulation
- Natural Fibre
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
- RTM-S
-Software
- SMC
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Point of view: "I have a very positive view of the market" by Thomas Hedger
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 8
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - PubJEC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - PubESI
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - In Brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Automotive
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Aeronautics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Building & construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Sustainability
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Asia-Pacific
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Resin
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - -Productivity
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - -Human Resources
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Natural Fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Race boat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Coating
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Bonding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - Natural Fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - RTM-S
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - -Software
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - - SMC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #67 - August/September 2011 - 68
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