JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 87

Technologycom S.r.l. and Cimteclab S.p.A. have developed an innovative epoxy prepreg using a cardanol derivative as curing agent. Two different cardanol-based epoxy systems were studied by DSC. The system showing the highest Tg was chosen for the manufacture of a UD carbon fibre prepreg by the hot melt process. Preliminary rheological measurements were performed to find the correct process parameters. Finally, the properties of cardanol-based resins and composites were compared with those of systems based on traditional amines.

By

prepreg

Innovative epoxy prepregs using bio-based curing agents
present work, an epoxy prepreg cured with a liquid cardanolbased novolac named Novocard XFN-1400 was developed by Technologycom S.r.l. and Cimteclab S.p.A. This prepreg is intended for the manufacture of secondary structures for aeronautical, wind energy, transport and sporting applications. Initially, two different cardanol-based epoxy systems characterized by different overall epoxy equivalent weights, named Ep50+Nov18 and Ep60+Nov18, were studied by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) analyses. These epoxy systems were chosen because they combined adequate tackiness and viscosity at room temperature – for good drapability and handiness of the prepregs – with good thermal and mechanical properties of the final cured composites. Ep60+Nov18 was used to manufacture the prepreg discussed in this work, in virtue of its higher Tg. Izod impact tests on samples of the cured Ep60+Nov18 showed a much higher toughness than a similar amine-cured epoxy system. A unidirectional carbon fibre prepreg tape was manufactured, pointing out the high processability of the system as well. In the end, mechanical tests were performed on a cured laminate made from 16 prepreg sheets. The tests showed that the mechanical performance of a composite material made from a cardanol-based epoxy matrix remains the same as that of a composite with a traditional amine-cured resin matrix.

DANIELE D'AMICO, R&D ENGINEER, CIMTECLAB S.P.A. FRANCO INNOCENTE, DIRECTOR OF BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, TECHNOLOGYCOM S.R.L.

M

aterials from renewable resources are presently gaining interest worldwide, due to the increasing awareness of the importance of more eco-sustainable human activities. When bio-based materials meeting the needs of high-performance industrial technologies are developed, then a significant step forward is taken in terms of eco-sustainability. This work, born from the combination of Cimteclab’s development activity on cardanol derivatives with Technologycom’s expertise in the field of prepregs, demonstrates a new step towards eco-sustainability. Cardanol is a natural phenol derivative obtained from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), an agricultural by-product of the cashew (Anacardium Occidentale L.) industry (1-4). Cimteclab S.p.A recently launched innovative bio-based epoxy curing agents produced from cardanol. As part of the

No62 January - February 2011 / jec composites magazine

Experimental

Materials The matrices used to produce the composite laminates were based on a blend of two epoxy resins, here named Ep1 and Ep2. Ep1 is a liquid epoxy resin characterized by a viscosity of 13 000 - 15 000 cPs at room temperature and an epoxy equivalent weight of 183-191 g/eq; Ep2 is a solid epoxy resin with an epoxy equivalent weight of 833-899 g/eq. Novocard XFN-1400 is the cardanol-based Novolac developed by Cimteclab S.p.A as curing agent for epoxy resins. It is characterized by a viscosity of 37,000-55,000 cPs at 25°C and a hydroxyl equivalent weight of 280-320 g/eq. The catalyst – 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (2,4-EMI) (95%) – was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany). Grafil HS 34-600 WD 48K carbon fibre tows in the form of yarns were used to manufacture the composites. 0.12 mm thick siliconed paper tape was employed to make the prepregs.

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Research & development



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011

Cover
Edito
Point of view: an extraordinary growth
Contents
Agenda of Events
COMPANY & BUSINESS
In Brief
Automotive - Sora Composites stays ahead of the field
China - CPIC Fiberglass, a strategy with results
APPLICATIONS
Marine - Case study: Composite surface smoothness improvement
Ballistic - Protection you can depend on
MARKET
Human capital - BMW, Composite specialists needed
Focus - Chinese composites market just keeps on growing
Trends - Airbus foresees demand for nearly 26,000 aircrafts the next 20 years
FEATURE SUSTAINABILITY
Market - Targets for bio-based composites and natural fibres
Fibre - Hemp: fibres meant for composites
Technical flax: a real opportunity for composites
Trends - Eco-design
Recycling - Sustainable recycling solutions for composites
SPECIAL JEC COMPOSITE 2011
2nd I.I.C.S.
Awards
JEC Innovation report 2011
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Medical/bio-composite - Mechanical properties vs. fabrication for medical applications
Prepreg - Innovative epoxy prepregs using bio-based curing agents
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
Moulding - Towards smarter, more autonomous moulds
Prepreg - New coating-line concepts for high-precision prepreg products
Carbon fibre - State-of-the-art equipment for carbon fibre production lines
Fibre placement - Optimized fibre placement for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Point of view: an extraordinary growth
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - JECBoston
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Aero
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - In Brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Automotive - Sora Composites stays ahead of the field
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - China - CPIC Fiberglass, a strategy with results
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Marine - Case study: Composite surface smoothness improvement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Ballistic - Protection you can depend on
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Human capital - BMW, Composite specialists needed
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Focus - Chinese composites market just keeps on growing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Trends - Airbus foresees demand for nearly 26,000 aircrafts the next 20 years
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Market - Targets for bio-based composites and natural fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Technical flax: a real opportunity for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 34
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Trends - Eco-design
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Recycling - Sustainable recycling solutions for composites
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 2nd I.I.C.S.
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - IICS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Poster
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Awards
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - JEC Innovation report 2011
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 81
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 82
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Medical/bio-composite - Mechanical properties vs. fabrication for medical applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 84
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 85
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 86
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Prepreg - Innovative epoxy prepregs using bio-based curing agents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 88
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 89
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 90
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Moulding - Towards smarter, more autonomous moulds
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 92
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Prepreg - New coating-line concepts for high-precision prepreg products
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 94
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 95
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Carbon fibre - State-of-the-art equipment for carbon fibre production lines
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 97
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 98
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Fibre placement - Optimized fibre placement for composites
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