JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 45

the different components when they are released as waste to be recycled. To address this problem, the author considered the idea of decomposition by steam, e.g. using high-temperature, highpressure steam from a steam turbine.

Recycling methodology for composites
Composite waste recycling Figure 1 shows several FRP recycling methods that appear to facilitate recycling the materials. A lot of work has been done in this field. Composite polymers Of the two types of plastics or polymers (thermoset and thermoplastic), thermosets need to be decomposed into smaller molecules (oligomers). This involves choosing the best process for thermosets and finding a way to recover the oligomers to rebuild them into polymers. Researchers have started working on this development, but it will take more time to achieve results.

Pulverization and reuse (Step 1) Pulverizing composite waste to produce powders that can be reused in new composites is easier for moulding shops and is widely applied as a recycling method in the plastics industry. When the waste is contaminated with foreign materials, however, other methods must be used. Cement kiln process (Step 2) Today, SMC or BMC mouldings such as automotive parts and bathtubs are widely used and then disposed of as waste. As shown in Figure 2, SMC or BMC formulations have a high filler content. The filler is usually calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which is also used in the cement kiln process. Post-consumer SMC mouldings are treated mainly in cement kilns. This method has been used in Japan and Europe [6]. The next challenge for industrial recycling is to develop a chemical recycling system for composite polymers in order to achieve steps 3 and 4. Decomposing to oligomers and rebuilding (Step 3) Because they are cross-linked polymers, thermosetting resins cannot be recovered in their original molecular structure. A moderate decomposition process was studied. A glycolysis reaction was first

applied to FRP formulated with unsaturated polyester resin as matrix, and thus far has been used successfully [17-18]. Realizing the effectiveness of super-critical water, the author tried to apply it to the degradation process using a steam turbine plant. Mr. Nakagawa proposed the subcritical water method as a more realistic way to build the pilot plant from an economical point of view. This provided a lot of data on recovered oligomers. He then tried to rebuild oligomers [19]. Mr. Shibata found another way to recover oligomers from polymers independently, using a certain liquid as a strong solvent. This process has also produced many good results [20]. Mr. Nakagawa and Mr. Shibata's works have opened the way for a new chemical recycling age. Both are continuing their research. Fibre recovery (Step 4) Glass and carbon fibres were also recovered from the decomposition process and could be used as original fibres, once it was confirmed that their properties are good enough. Carbon-fibre recycling in particular is much more significant from the economic point of view.

The basic steps of industrial recycling
As explained above, composites usually consist of three components: resin or polymer, fibre and filler. Formulations are illustrated in Figure 2.

Fig.2: Composite’s three components and their formulations (Triangular coordinate expression)

No63 March 2011 / jec composites magazine

Discussion

The author has described several possible recycling processes, but it remains to be seen which one is the most suitable. Researchers are finding new interesting methods, e.g. using certain oligomers to rebuild new polymers. The goal of these developments is to achieve "bumper to bumper" recycling. We need to use both analytic and synthetic approaches to study oligomer chemistry. While researchers have studied mostly unsaturated polyesters, the author is more interested in epoxy resins and polyimides, which are commonly used in aircraft and electronics applications, among others. Selecting these processes for practical industrial use will involve optimizing many scientific and engineering parameters [7; 16].

Conclusions

As the very first stage, clean waste composite can be recycled as a filler for manufacturing new composites [2]. If the waste is not clean

45

Feature sustainability



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011

Cover
Edito
Point of view: an extraordinary growth
Contents
Agenda of Events
COMPANY & BUSINESS
In Brief
Automotive - Sora Composites stays ahead of the field
China - CPIC Fiberglass, a strategy with results
APPLICATIONS
Marine - Case study: Composite surface smoothness improvement
Ballistic - Protection you can depend on
MARKET
Human capital - BMW, Composite specialists needed
Focus - Chinese composites market just keeps on growing
Trends - Airbus foresees demand for nearly 26,000 aircrafts the next 20 years
FEATURE SUSTAINABILITY
Market - Targets for bio-based composites and natural fibres
Fibre - Hemp: fibres meant for composites
Technical flax: a real opportunity for composites
Trends - Eco-design
Recycling - Sustainable recycling solutions for composites
SPECIAL JEC COMPOSITE 2011
2nd I.I.C.S.
Awards
JEC Innovation report 2011
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Medical/bio-composite - Mechanical properties vs. fabrication for medical applications
Prepreg - Innovative epoxy prepregs using bio-based curing agents
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
Moulding - Towards smarter, more autonomous moulds
Prepreg - New coating-line concepts for high-precision prepreg products
Carbon fibre - State-of-the-art equipment for carbon fibre production lines
Fibre placement - Optimized fibre placement for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Point of view: an extraordinary growth
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - JECBoston
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Aero
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - In Brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Automotive - Sora Composites stays ahead of the field
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 12
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - China - CPIC Fiberglass, a strategy with results
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Marine - Case study: Composite surface smoothness improvement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Ballistic - Protection you can depend on
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Human capital - BMW, Composite specialists needed
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Focus - Chinese composites market just keeps on growing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Trends - Airbus foresees demand for nearly 26,000 aircrafts the next 20 years
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Market - Targets for bio-based composites and natural fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Technical flax: a real opportunity for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 35
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Trends - Eco-design
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Recycling - Sustainable recycling solutions for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 2nd I.I.C.S.
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - IICS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Poster
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Awards
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 56
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - JEC Innovation report 2011
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 63
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 81
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 82
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Medical/bio-composite - Mechanical properties vs. fabrication for medical applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 84
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 85
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 86
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Prepreg - Innovative epoxy prepregs using bio-based curing agents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 88
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 89
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 90
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Moulding - Towards smarter, more autonomous moulds
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 92
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Prepreg - New coating-line concepts for high-precision prepreg products
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 94
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 95
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Carbon fibre - State-of-the-art equipment for carbon fibre production lines
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 97
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 98
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Fibre placement - Optimized fibre placement for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 100
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