JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 100

fibre placement
Fiber area of use

performance are to prioritize fibre tensile and compression strength and to avoid subjecting the resin to stress, particularly to tensile stress.

a state of compression and shear stress. The shear tolerated in Case 2 is much higher than the shear tolerated in Case 1.
Centre-to-centre distance: 850 mm Weight: 4.2 kg

Fibres and resin: like chalk and cheese
By their very nature, fibres and resin are strikingly different materials, for both isotropy and performance level. Whatever the type, fibres are basically long and thin. They resist local tensile stress and compression (which is limited by local buckling), but not bending or twisting.
Resin area of use

Application to connecting rods

100

By nature, resin is a homogeneous and isotropic material, i.e. there is no preferential strength direction. The damage mode is more complicated for this type of material, as illustrated by Mohr’s circle.

The connecting rod shown is of the heavily loaded type used in aircraft landing gear and in the railway industry. When compression or tensile stress occurs between the eyelets, the areas around the eyelets are subject to heavy shear stress. The design for the new composite connecting rod is based on the rules mentioned earlier, i.e. relying on the carbon fibre’s tensile and compression strength, as the resin is not subjected to stress at all in this application. The TA6V inserts are held in place in a prestressed assembly, sandwiched between a compression core and a tension belt. This concept has been applied to a connecting rod for landing gear with the following characteristics:
Rod High Mechanical Resistance Creation: C&T/BTSi/SKF

jec composites magazine / No63 March 2011
Examining both of the above resin stress cases shows that the performance level depends on the type of stress. Case 1 represents resin in a state of tensile and shear stress. Case 2 represents resin in

Loads: 50 metric tons (tensile & compression)

Problem : Resin shearing

Problem : Unfolding stress in fibers

The resulting connecting rod has a knuckle joint at each end in order to receive 38-mmdiameter axes. The tensile and buckling strength was tested following multiple 90Joule impacts in the critical areas.

Application to the problem of unfolding
Composite structural parts often have more or less sharp angles that give rise to a complex stress mode called “unfolding”, defined as an increase in the angle between walls due to a bending moment. The plies inside the bend radius are pulled and those outside the bend radius are compressed, subjecting the resin to tensile loading both inside and outside the bend radius. Rupture is caused by delamination of the plies inside and outside the bend radius and by localized buckling of the plies outside the bend radius. The part has a weak point that is due to the combined action of tensile loading in the resin and localized buckling of the plies. This unfolding stress does not act alone, however, and the stressed state is almost always compounded by shear loading in the resin at its weak point.

More information

The preliminary design analysis is based on the materials. The fibre placement (location and orientation) must be optimized to enable: -limited tension and compression on the fibres -compression and shear on the resin.

Application to structural parts
The part shape was modified so that the part could withstand a bending moment in the metal fitting’s area of unfolding. In this area



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011

Cover
Edito
Point of view: an extraordinary growth
Contents
Agenda of Events
COMPANY & BUSINESS
In Brief
Automotive - Sora Composites stays ahead of the field
China - CPIC Fiberglass, a strategy with results
APPLICATIONS
Marine - Case study: Composite surface smoothness improvement
Ballistic - Protection you can depend on
MARKET
Human capital - BMW, Composite specialists needed
Focus - Chinese composites market just keeps on growing
Trends - Airbus foresees demand for nearly 26,000 aircrafts the next 20 years
FEATURE SUSTAINABILITY
Market - Targets for bio-based composites and natural fibres
Fibre - Hemp: fibres meant for composites
Technical flax: a real opportunity for composites
Trends - Eco-design
Recycling - Sustainable recycling solutions for composites
SPECIAL JEC COMPOSITE 2011
2nd I.I.C.S.
Awards
JEC Innovation report 2011
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Medical/bio-composite - Mechanical properties vs. fabrication for medical applications
Prepreg - Innovative epoxy prepregs using bio-based curing agents
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
Moulding - Towards smarter, more autonomous moulds
Prepreg - New coating-line concepts for high-precision prepreg products
Carbon fibre - State-of-the-art equipment for carbon fibre production lines
Fibre placement - Optimized fibre placement for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Point of view: an extraordinary growth
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - JECBoston
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Aero
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - In Brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Automotive - Sora Composites stays ahead of the field
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 13
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - China - CPIC Fiberglass, a strategy with results
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Marine - Case study: Composite surface smoothness improvement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Ballistic - Protection you can depend on
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Human capital - BMW, Composite specialists needed
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Focus - Chinese composites market just keeps on growing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Trends - Airbus foresees demand for nearly 26,000 aircrafts the next 20 years
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Market - Targets for bio-based composites and natural fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Technical flax: a real opportunity for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Trends - Eco-design
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Recycling - Sustainable recycling solutions for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 2nd I.I.C.S.
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - IICS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Poster
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Awards
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 56
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - JEC Innovation report 2011
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 64
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 81
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 82
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Medical/bio-composite - Mechanical properties vs. fabrication for medical applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 84
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 85
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 86
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Prepreg - Innovative epoxy prepregs using bio-based curing agents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 88
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 89
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 90
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Moulding - Towards smarter, more autonomous moulds
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 92
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Prepreg - New coating-line concepts for high-precision prepreg products
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 94
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 95
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Carbon fibre - State-of-the-art equipment for carbon fibre production lines
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 97
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 98
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - Fibre placement - Optimized fibre placement for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #63 - March 2011 - 100
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