JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 57

Figure 2 shows the concept for the sub-critical water recycling process applied to the thermosetting resin in FRP After sub-critical . water hydrolysis of FRP the resin was dissolved into a reaction , liquid. This means that all of the glycol, fumaric acid, and styrenefumaric acid copolymer (SFC) were dissolved in the aqueous reaction liquid. The UP components recovered, such as glycols and fumaric acid, were separated from the aqueous reaction liquid and polymerized into polyester with new raw resin materials to produce recycled UP resin. This can be horizontally recycled back into FRP The SFC was . also separated from the aqueous reaction liquid. The molecular structure analysis of the SFC suggested that it had a potential to be a raw material for the synthesized functional polymer. We found that its molecular structure was similar to that of a commercial lowprofile additive (LPA) for FRP forming. It is a high-value functional polymer comprising polystyrene. The SFC can be recycled to LPA after modifying its carboxylic acid group to develop the shrinkage control effect. no chloroform-soluble ingredients were collected. Although the conversion was 30.8%, it was obvious that the pyrolysis was suppressed successfully. Fig. 4: Experimental results (230°C, 2.8 MPa, 4 hours) Several alkali catalysts were then examined under the same reaction conditions (230°C, 2.8 MPa for 4 hours) to improve the conversion. Table 1 shows that 96.9% of the conversion was achieved using potassium hydrate. The recovery rate of glycol and fumaric acid was 70.7% and 21.8% by weight, respectively. Tab.1: Comparison of alkali catalysts (230°C, 2.8 MPa, 4 hours, by weight) Optimizing reaction conditions for sub-critical water hydrolysis The test conditions that yielded the highest recovery rate for glycol and fumaric acid were as follows: reaction temperature, 360° C; pressure, 18.7 MPa (saturated vapour pressure); reaction time, 20 minutes; and alkali catalyst, calcium carbonate. Figure 3 shows the experimental results obtained at 360° C. The reaction liquid collected was black. 35 wt% of the decomposing organic ingredients was water soluble, and 65 wt% was chloroform soluble. In the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chart for the water-soluble solution, many ingredients, such as fumaric acid ethyl ester, were detected. They were considered as the deterioration of glycol or fumaric acid. In the GC-MS chart for the chloroform-soluble solution, a variety of substances of styrene origin was observed. These results suggested that pyrolysis of the styrene cross-linking moiety was dominant in these reaction conditions. Catalyst No Catalyst CaCO3 K3PO4 KOH Conversion Glycol recovery rate Fumaric-acid recovery rate 15.9% 30.8% 41.5% 96.9% 33.7% 32.2% 58.6% 70.7% 9.0% 1.2% 3.6% 21.8% The SFC was extracted from the reaction liquid after controlling the pH. The weight of SFC was 75% of the weight of the initial thermosetting resin. Thus, it was shown that up to 96 wt% of the initial resin existed in the reaction liquid as reusable ingredients. It was obvious that hydrolysis was ideally dominant and the pyrolysis was almost suppressed in these reaction conditions. After the separation of glycol from the reaction liquid, 72% of the glycol in the reaction liquid was recovered. The recovered glycol was polymerized into polyester with new raw resin materials to produce recycled UP resin that was used to produce an FRP board sample for strength-characteristic testing. It showed strength characteristics equivalent to a new UP resin (figure 5). Fig. 3: Experiment results (360°C, 18.7 MPa, 20 minutes) The pyrolysis of the styrene cross-linking moiety of the thermosetting polyester resin started at 230°C. To suppress the pyrolysis, the reaction was conducted at 230°C and 2.8 MPa for 4 hours with calcium carbonate. Figure 4 shows the experimental results obtained at 230°C. The reaction liquid obtained was clear. In the GC-MS chart for the water soluble solution, no deteriorated ingredients were detected other than the initial glycols. In addition, Fig.5: Styrene-fumaric acid copolymer No40 May 2008 / JEC Composites Magazine

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008

Cover
Edito
NEWS WORLDWIDE | Companies
Nippon Graphite Fiber increases production capacity
World’s largest ECR glass fibre plant
CPIC and Abahsain set up glass fibre joint venture
Airbus negotiations called off in Germany
A400M static testing
Agenda of events
Equipment: non destructive control
BUSINESS
Market survey: India
Trends | Two major sustainable development challenges: raw materials and energy
Niche market | Taking up the rapid manufacturing challenge
Human capital |Choosing the right opportunity
FEATURE | Wind energy : Market update
History : Not just another windmill story
Process : An experimental vertical-axis wind turbine system
Composite manufacturing process for wind energy
Materials technology for the wind energy market
Equipment : The perfect mixture
USERS’ PLATFORM
Composites in the world : Bamboo helmet
Very exclusive business cards
World’s First Integrated Wind Turbines
Solar energy and hydrogen powered plane
Successful partners : Art nesting in a composite bower
Applications : A Hybrid composite carbody for korean tilting train
KNOW-HOW : Environment
Coupling agent : Composite stone
Process
Bonding : INDAR
Special Asia
News
Application
Products from exhibitors
Participating companies
Singapore today
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 6
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - CPIC and Abahsain set up glass fibre joint venture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - A400M static testing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Equipment: non destructive control
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Market survey: India
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Trends | Two major sustainable development challenges: raw materials and energy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Niche market | Taking up the rapid manufacturing challenge
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Human capital |Choosing the right opportunity
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - FEATURE | Wind energy : Market update
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - History : Not just another windmill story
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Process : An experimental vertical-axis wind turbine system
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Composite manufacturing process for wind energy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Materials technology for the wind energy market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Equipment : The perfect mixture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - USERS’ PLATFORM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Very exclusive business cards
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Solar energy and hydrogen powered plane
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Successful partners : Art nesting in a composite bower
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Applications : A Hybrid composite carbody for korean tilting train
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - KNOW-HOW : Environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Coupling agent : Composite stone
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Bonding : INDAR
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Special Asia
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - News
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - III
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Products from exhibitors
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Participating companies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - VII
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Singapore today
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