JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 29

FEATURE “Wind Energy” History Not just another windmill story Windmills have ground grain and pumped water for about fifteen hundred years. In the last hundred years or so, the free wind stream was made to generate six-volt electricity. Today’s high-tech windmills are bunched on “farms” and produce up to 340 MW of power. Windmills are a clean source of electricity – but the wind is no longer free. America continued to use windmills for house and stock water. By 1950, almost all of the US was electrified. Demand for and production of electricity spiked. Hydroelectric plants could not supply enough power to meet demand, sparking the growth of coalfired power generators, and oil was only $3 a barrel. Then, the oil crisis in 1973 ushered in modern utilization of windmills to produce large amounts of electricity. The composite industry started coming of age at about the same time. Almost all composites are engineered materials made from two or more elements with significantly different chemical or physical properties. Plywood is a composite, as is steel-reinforced concrete. Every composite, including plywood and concrete, has a matrix and reinforcement. Both are necessary. The composites used in windmills, more accurately called wind turbines, are made from liquid resins (usually thermoset polymers such as polyesters or epoxies) reinforced with glass or carbon fibres. The finished composite parts are lightweight, but strong. Of course, not all parts are made with the same composite. In high-stress areas such as the turbine blades, the parts may require a vinylester resin, or maybe epoxy. Each composite type imparts its own special properties, such as high tensile strength. In the case of non-moving exterior parts, there would be a requirement for high UV resistance. The methods used to make composite parts range from open moulding (a onesided mould face) to vacuum bagging, RTM and several others. All of the mould types require tools or moulds to shape the part. Because of their high physical properties and ease of manufacture, vinylester gelcoats combined with vinylester laminating resins make the best composite tooling. Unsaturated polyester and vinylester gelcoats, and that includes the putties that glue the parts together, are important components in any composite, and especially suited for use in wind turbines. HK Research Corporation introduced vinylester gelcoats to the composite industry in 1988. As we moved into the 21st century, HKR applied its knowledge of and leadership in vinylester gelcoat technology to the manufacture of wind turbines, simultaneously adding unsaturated polyesters and putties to the palette of wind-turbine materials. GLENN WIGINGTON, TECHNICAL DIRECTOR HK RESEARCH CORPORATION I t is a pleasure to read about the history of windmill technology, which has matured over a span of a thousand-plus years. From power for a family corn mill, it moved to pumping sea water from dikes and providing drinking water for my Dad’s cattle. My grandmother used a 6-volt wind-charger to power her old Admiral radio. And let’s not forget Miguel Cervantes, who in 1605 wrote about a windmill that foiled an attack by the brave but crazy knight Don Quixote! Now windmill farms produce enough electricity to serve entire cities. Already wind generators provide more than 2% of California’s power. How is this possible? Composites! From wood to composites Windmills were first made of wood, because not much else was available. Then other important construction materials came along. First iron and copper, then steel and other alloys improved the longevity and strength of towers and blades. But metals added a lot of weight to the structures, and this in turn limited their height and efficiency (number of blades) of the windmills. High-voltage electricity became available in the late Fig. 1: Old windmill 19th century. Grains that had been ground with wind power were moved to mills powered by electricity. It was new, cheap and plentiful. The rural areas of From wood to composites The pre-1973 price of oil at $3 per barrel had risen to nearly $100 per barrel by 2007. There are more people on the planet than ever No40 May 2008 / JEC Composites Magazine

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008

Cover
Edito
NEWS WORLDWIDE | Companies
Nippon Graphite Fiber increases production capacity
World’s largest ECR glass fibre plant
CPIC and Abahsain set up glass fibre joint venture
Airbus negotiations called off in Germany
A400M static testing
Agenda of events
Equipment: non destructive control
BUSINESS
Market survey: India
Trends | Two major sustainable development challenges: raw materials and energy
Niche market | Taking up the rapid manufacturing challenge
Human capital |Choosing the right opportunity
FEATURE | Wind energy : Market update
History : Not just another windmill story
Process : An experimental vertical-axis wind turbine system
Composite manufacturing process for wind energy
Materials technology for the wind energy market
Equipment : The perfect mixture
USERS’ PLATFORM
Composites in the world : Bamboo helmet
Very exclusive business cards
World’s First Integrated Wind Turbines
Solar energy and hydrogen powered plane
Successful partners : Art nesting in a composite bower
Applications : A Hybrid composite carbody for korean tilting train
KNOW-HOW : Environment
Coupling agent : Composite stone
Process
Bonding : INDAR
Special Asia
News
Application
Products from exhibitors
Participating companies
Singapore today
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 6
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - CPIC and Abahsain set up glass fibre joint venture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - A400M static testing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Equipment: non destructive control
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Market survey: India
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Trends | Two major sustainable development challenges: raw materials and energy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Niche market | Taking up the rapid manufacturing challenge
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Human capital |Choosing the right opportunity
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - FEATURE | Wind energy : Market update
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - History : Not just another windmill story
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Process : An experimental vertical-axis wind turbine system
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Composite manufacturing process for wind energy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Materials technology for the wind energy market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Equipment : The perfect mixture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - USERS’ PLATFORM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Very exclusive business cards
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Solar energy and hydrogen powered plane
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Successful partners : Art nesting in a composite bower
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Applications : A Hybrid composite carbody for korean tilting train
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - KNOW-HOW : Environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Coupling agent : Composite stone
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Bonding : INDAR
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Special Asia
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - News
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - III
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Products from exhibitors
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Participating companies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - VII
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Singapore today
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