JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 20

BUSINESS Trends g…/… Raw materials and energy 200 million MT of plastics, only 300,000 T are biopolymers. It would be advisable to avoid utilizations that conflict with food and agricultural objectives, and focus instead on applications that use non-alimentary biomass materials for technological niches such as 1) fibres like cellulose, flax, and hemp, or 2) certain natural polymers (notably polylactic acid, or PLA, which is extracted from corn starch) that can contribute specific properties like biodegradability, but for which extensive utilization is still limited by cost (two or three times more than petrochemical polymers) or inconsistent quality, or lack of availability.Where first-generation biofuels like ethanol or oils are concerned, the problem of agricultural land quickly crops up – at worst, involving more or less intense deforestation in tropical countries; at best, taking land away from food crops. For example, to reach its 2010 objective of an energy mix including 7% biofuels (or 3.6 Metric tons of oil equivalent), France will need 15% (2.5 Million hectares) of its 18.4 Mha of cultivable surface. Channels for secondgeneration biofuels based on cellulose recovered from waste will not be operational at a significant industrial scale before another decade. Fig.2: Metal consumption intensity and stages of development (after C. Hocquard, BRGM, 2004) products, or even processors (ArcelorMittal, for example) take up mining in order to secur 90% of their raw-materials supply (iron ore and coal); - downstream: mining or oil operators (Rio Tinto’s buyout of Alcan, petrochemical company Sabic’s buyout of GE Plastics). Given this hyper-activity, Europe appears regrettably weak and non-reactive: it hardly seems to care about its raw materials supply, and seems incapable of securing its own stocks of secondary materials. The world appears to be committed to a raw-materials and energy “super-cycle” that will certainly last, given the prospect of continuing development of the BRIC countries and of population growth – but will it be sustainable ? Solutions A critical assessment of the solutions suggests several different possibilities: - Increasing the supply of mineral raw materials would involve improving extraction processes such as grinding, hydrometallurgy, or in situ mining; stepping up exploration; and launching more production. The high prices are a positive factor, to be sure, but there are also some negative ones – for example, mining lower grades comes at a higher energy and environmental cost, and it is very difficult to compress the time from exploration to production launch (5 to 15 years). - Recycling is clearly a necessity, but we cannot rely only on this solution, considering the high scrap rate and the lifetime of the applications that consume the most materials, i.e. in building & construction, transport and energy. The ferrous and nonferrous metals that recycle best contribute only 50% (iron) to 60% (lead, for example, which has a 90%+ recycle rate) to the global supply pool. The issue is to optimize recovery and recycling rates and, especially, to improve the quality of secondary materials. This could be promoted through an approach that considers recycling as the “mining” of a deposit of secondary materials and not just as the economic upgrading of final waste. The “dematerialization” illusion This term can be taken in two ways. One fits into the ecodesign approach and advocates decreasing the share of raw materials in products, for example using miniaturization; certain products like electronics (i.e. cellphones) come with the risk of having highly scattered metals in waste stocks that hinder recycling. Another way to consider dematerialization is controlling the life cycle of a product by selling, not the product itself, but the use of it (long-term rental). The renter remains solely responsible for the product at end of life, and can choose to overhaul Agro-resources: a blind alley? The principal purpose of agro-resources is still food for humans and animals. Global production is nowhere near being able to replace raw materials of petrochemical origin with biopolymers – out of the total JEC Composites Magazine / No40 May 2008

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008

Cover
Edito
NEWS WORLDWIDE | Companies
Nippon Graphite Fiber increases production capacity
World’s largest ECR glass fibre plant
CPIC and Abahsain set up glass fibre joint venture
Airbus negotiations called off in Germany
A400M static testing
Agenda of events
Equipment: non destructive control
BUSINESS
Market survey: India
Trends | Two major sustainable development challenges: raw materials and energy
Niche market | Taking up the rapid manufacturing challenge
Human capital |Choosing the right opportunity
FEATURE | Wind energy : Market update
History : Not just another windmill story
Process : An experimental vertical-axis wind turbine system
Composite manufacturing process for wind energy
Materials technology for the wind energy market
Equipment : The perfect mixture
USERS’ PLATFORM
Composites in the world : Bamboo helmet
Very exclusive business cards
World’s First Integrated Wind Turbines
Solar energy and hydrogen powered plane
Successful partners : Art nesting in a composite bower
Applications : A Hybrid composite carbody for korean tilting train
KNOW-HOW : Environment
Coupling agent : Composite stone
Process
Bonding : INDAR
Special Asia
News
Application
Products from exhibitors
Participating companies
Singapore today
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 6
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - CPIC and Abahsain set up glass fibre joint venture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - A400M static testing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Equipment: non destructive control
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Market survey: India
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Trends | Two major sustainable development challenges: raw materials and energy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Niche market | Taking up the rapid manufacturing challenge
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Human capital |Choosing the right opportunity
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - FEATURE | Wind energy : Market update
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - History : Not just another windmill story
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Process : An experimental vertical-axis wind turbine system
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Composite manufacturing process for wind energy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Materials technology for the wind energy market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Equipment : The perfect mixture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - USERS’ PLATFORM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Very exclusive business cards
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Solar energy and hydrogen powered plane
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Successful partners : Art nesting in a composite bower
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Applications : A Hybrid composite carbody for korean tilting train
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - KNOW-HOW : Environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Coupling agent : Composite stone
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Bonding : INDAR
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Special Asia
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - News
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - III
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Products from exhibitors
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Participating companies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - VII
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Singapore today
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