JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 18

BUSINESS Trends Two major sustainable development challenges: raw materials and energy Our society has been living under a sword of Damocles for a number of years now, with two impending dangers for the 21st century. One is climate change, with increased global warming due in large part to our industrial activity. The other, which is discussed in the article below, is the dwindling of our planet’s non-renewable fossil fuel energy and mineral resources that are available to us. JEAN-CLAUDE PREVOT, MANAGER, ARDI - MATERIALS DEPARTEMENT (FRENCH REGIONAL AGENCY FOR DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION) n assessment of the situation indicates that there is cause for concern in the soaring prices of natural mineral and other energy resources and, more recently, of food resources, and also in the increasingly frequent supply pressures. While these are all due to various reasons, the effects are cumulative. One example is when poor wheat and corn crop yields in some countries, a strong demand for biofuels, and the increase in food consumption in emerging countries all converge. The resulting conflict in crop utilization could intensify in the coming years. Another example is oil, where production and transport capacities that are inadequate – or at least close to saturation – are unable to meet global demand as emerging countries join the ranks of energy consumers. The metal sector is also straining to meet soaring demand because of persistent mining undercapacity and inadequate sources of recycled metals (the principal metals remain “locked up” in long-lived products). All of these factors form a context around the surge in demand from emerging countries, which is complicated further by structural issues like infrastructure, supply chain, and access to deposits, and by circumstantial issues like climatic problems/events. Note that the issues could very well become structural. Fewer and fewer deposits are being discovered, and this is cause for concern even though high prices are making it possible to mine more mediocre deposits. Furthermore, the speculation around commodity prices and stocks is making things worse. The more specific issue of first-generation biofuels like starch and oils confronts humanity with a societal choice between eating, or using means of transport![1] Because of its harmful effects on the environment (in particular deforestation), the intensive farming involved also is of concern to us. Supply Starting from the different types of resources, we can describe the constituent elements of the ore economy, including the often confused notions of resources and reserves (Table 1) and the factors that are specific to the industry, notably the fact that it takes 10 to 15 years to get from the discovery of a raw-material deposit to launching production. Tab.1: Types of resource Resources Nonexhaustible Exhaustible Stochastic sources: sun, Biomass wind, waves, Reservoirs: Renewable rainwater freshwater ponds, Reservoirs: air aquifers, fertile soil (O2, CO2), oceans (water) Recyclable: metals Recoverable: minerals, land Non-recoverable: fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal, uranium) Nonrenewable Resources refer to all known or estimated available amounts of a given substance, independent of economical considerations. Reserves refer to delimited concentrations of a given substance, i.e. deposits, that by their quantity (tonnage) and quality (grade) can be exploited profitably for industrial use: - selecting fillers (particle size) - selecting and/or optimizing the architecture of the fibrous reinforcement - defining the best injection strategy. For most common metals, the known or estimated resources are abundant, while the reserves, i.e. the portion of resources that is economically exploitable, are by definition highly variable and often fall short of matching strong demand. For example, as seen in Table 2, for more than 50 years, at the annual production rate for the year under consideration, the known global reserves for the main metals have been equivalent to several hundred years for iron and aluminium and up to sixty years for copper and zinc. This indicates that there is no risk of depletion over the medium term, even though annual production rates have considerably increased (tenfold for Al and sixfold for Fe and Cu). For the non-renewable but recyclable metal resources, the availability may not be infinite, but it generally extends beyond the long-term forecasts. The real issues for these industries are to adapt flows and capacities to demand, to control environmental and social impacts (sharing the mining benefits), to make the energy available, and to obtain access to deposits (geopolitical and NIMBY[2] issues). JEC Composites Magazine / No40 May 2008

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008

Cover
Edito
NEWS WORLDWIDE | Companies
Nippon Graphite Fiber increases production capacity
World’s largest ECR glass fibre plant
CPIC and Abahsain set up glass fibre joint venture
Airbus negotiations called off in Germany
A400M static testing
Agenda of events
Equipment: non destructive control
BUSINESS
Market survey: India
Trends | Two major sustainable development challenges: raw materials and energy
Niche market | Taking up the rapid manufacturing challenge
Human capital |Choosing the right opportunity
FEATURE | Wind energy : Market update
History : Not just another windmill story
Process : An experimental vertical-axis wind turbine system
Composite manufacturing process for wind energy
Materials technology for the wind energy market
Equipment : The perfect mixture
USERS’ PLATFORM
Composites in the world : Bamboo helmet
Very exclusive business cards
World’s First Integrated Wind Turbines
Solar energy and hydrogen powered plane
Successful partners : Art nesting in a composite bower
Applications : A Hybrid composite carbody for korean tilting train
KNOW-HOW : Environment
Coupling agent : Composite stone
Process
Bonding : INDAR
Special Asia
News
Application
Products from exhibitors
Participating companies
Singapore today
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 6
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - CPIC and Abahsain set up glass fibre joint venture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - A400M static testing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Equipment: non destructive control
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Market survey: India
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Trends | Two major sustainable development challenges: raw materials and energy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Niche market | Taking up the rapid manufacturing challenge
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Human capital |Choosing the right opportunity
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - FEATURE | Wind energy : Market update
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - History : Not just another windmill story
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Process : An experimental vertical-axis wind turbine system
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Composite manufacturing process for wind energy
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Materials technology for the wind energy market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Equipment : The perfect mixture
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - USERS’ PLATFORM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Very exclusive business cards
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Solar energy and hydrogen powered plane
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Successful partners : Art nesting in a composite bower
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Applications : A Hybrid composite carbody for korean tilting train
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - KNOW-HOW : Environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Coupling agent : Composite stone
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Bonding : INDAR
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - 68
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Special Asia
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - News
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - III
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Products from exhibitors
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Participating companies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - VII
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #40 - May 2008 - Singapore today
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