JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 59

Focus History of SL materials development First introduced in the late 1980s, stereolithography is the most widely used method for rapid prototyping from CAD data. The basic process utilizes finely focused ultraviolet laser to cure successive cross sections of liquid photopolymer to form a solid part (see figures a anb). Photopolymers are complex mixtures containing reactive monomers and oligomers, photoinitiators, stabilizers, and other additives. Components are usually multifunctional and highly reactive to ensure fast cure and high strength of the cured layers. The first photopolymers developed for SL by Huntsman (formerly Ciba-Geigy) were based on acrylate resins that generated highly reticulated, rigid networks for the production of solid three-dimensional parts used as concept and form-and-fit models. Initial SL parts based on acrylate chemistries were quite brittle, having surfaces that required significant secondary finishing for removal of the “stair/step” pattern produced as the photopolymer cross sections cured in the vat. Through the mid-1990s, epoxy resins were incorporated into the acrylate network. The epoxies expanded as they polymerized to compensate for the shrinkage of the acrylates in the formulation. With this change, models built with these initial hybrid photopolymers exhibited improved accuracy allowing production of durable master patterns. With the wide range of epoxy building blocks available, formulators were able to develop many different SL resins to meet the diverse requirements of a broad spectrum of applications. Among these new epoxy/acrylate resins were materials featuring high temperature resistance (up to 250°C) for automotive under-the-hood applications and flexible polypropylene-like materials for snap-fit applications. In 2002, while previous SL resins produced ambercoloured parts, as hybrid formulations continued to evolve, Huntsman introduced first-generation white ABS-like photopolymers to its line, for the production of parts that could be used for limited functional testing. In addition, selectively colourable resins were introduced for building medical models. These unique photopolymers could be exposed to a second curing cycle to produce red-tinted areas within predefined sections of a model. Fig. b: SL process Fig. a: SL curing principle When the laser beam with a Gaussian energy distribution hits the surface of the liquid photopolymer, the curing process is initiated. The liquid changes to a highly reticulated gel close to the solid state within seconds. This polymerization occurs where the energy delivered by the Gaussian laser beam is superior to a resin-dependent parameter called “critical exposure”. The resin is cured through the cure depth, another resin-dependent parameter. The depth to which the laser penetrates inside the resin is deeper than the layer thickness, allowing stitching to the previously solidified layer. This is called the overcure. In absence of overcure, layers would simply be stacked on top of each other, and delamination could occur. Layer thickness varies from 0.025 mm to 0.15 mm depending on the systems. From 2003 to 2006, the line of RenShape® SL epoxyacrylate hybrids expanded to include clear materials for building high accuracy parts and secondgeneration white ABS-like photopolymers with improved functional characteristics. In 2006, Huntsman introduced the first major change in SL chemistries in nearly a decade with its advanced epoxy hybrid photopolymers. These next generation materials, based on novel photo-chemistries, are expanding SL resins capabilities into a new performance arena. Specifically, the reticulated network contains less residual stress and is less prone to ageing and dark cure, yielding SL parts with previously unattainable toughness and durability. No36 October - November 2007 / JEC Composites Magazine

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007

- Trends
FEATURE: TRANSPORTATION
- Measurement
Edito
BUSINESS
- Innovations
- Niche markets
- Companies
- Application
- Successful partners
- Composites in the world
CONTENTS
KNOW-HOW
- Process
USERS’ PLATFORM
- Market
- Market survey
NEWS WORLDWIDE
- Prototyping
- Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - CONTENTS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - NEWS WORLDWIDE
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Innovations
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Market survey
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Trends
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Niche markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - FEATURE: TRANSPORTATION
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - USERS’ PLATFORM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Composites in the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Successful partners
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - KNOW-HOW
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Prototyping
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Measurement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 68
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2107_141
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2105_140
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2103_139
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm-experts-digest-additive-manufacturing-2020
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2101_138
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2011_Special_Issue4
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2011_137
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2009_136
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2007_135
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm_2020_Q1_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2005_Special_Issue3
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2005_134
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2003_133
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2001_132
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_Special_Issue2
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_131
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1909_130
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1907_129
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1905_128
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_Special_Issue1
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_127
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1901_126
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1811_125
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1810_124
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1808_123
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1807_122
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1805_121
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1804_120
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1803_119
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1802_119-Supplement_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1801_118
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1711_117
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1710_116
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1708_115
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1707_114
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1706_113
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1704_112
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1703_111
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1701_110
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1611_109
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1610_108
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1608_107
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1607_106
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1605_105
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1604_104
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1603_103
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1601_102
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1511_101
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1510_100
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1509_99
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1507_98
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1505_97
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1504_96
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1503_95
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1501_94
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1412_93
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1410_92
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1409_91
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1406_90
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1405_89
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1404_88
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1403_87
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1401_86
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1311_85
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1310_84
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1308_83
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1307_82
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1305_81
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1304_80
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1303_79
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1301_78
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1212_77
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1210_76
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1208_75
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1207_74
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1206_73
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1204_72
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1203_71
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1201_70
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1111_69
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1110_68
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1108_67
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1107_66
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1105_65
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1104_64
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1103_63
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1101_62
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1011_61
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1010_60
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1009_59
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1006_58
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1005_57
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1004_56
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1003_55
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1001_54
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0911_53
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0910_52
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0909_51
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0907-08_50
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0906_49
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0904_48
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0903_47
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0901_46
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0811_45
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0810_44
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0809_43
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0807_42
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0806_41
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0805_40
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0803_39
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0801_38
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0712_37
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0710_36
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0709_35
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0707_34
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0706_33
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com