JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 31

Market industrial players – Mercedes Benz, Volvo, Scania, Ford and Volkswagen – had new quality requirements, such as ISO 9000, and would no longer accept manual processes. Compositeprocessing industries in Brazil had to find alternatives to raise the quality level of their processes. In this way, the use of SMC and RTM began to develop in Brazil for the first time, changing concepts and work approaches. In the specific case of buses, however, we still had an investment feasibility problem. Due to the small number of models and vehicle standardization in the truck industry, it is feasible to invest heavily in RTM and SMC for developing components, but this is not so for buses. In 1995, Marcopolo was already producing a high number of units per day – but many different components were needed for the different models, because its buses were almost fully customized for each individual customer. For instance, there were more than ten models for bumpers. Using high-pressure RTM was almost impossible because of cost and the need to change models constantly. Despite these difficulties, Marcopolo decided to develop more standardized products using this technology. As long as there were no solutions for small-scale production, the road was clear in Brazil’s bus body segment for vacuum-formed thermoplastics to develop. dashboards and toilet modules. Although the market is increasingly competitive, these figures should continue to grow if creative solutions continue to be found and prices remain competitive. The main trends for use are in panels for external bodies, integrated bus roof modules that include inner and outer panels, and integrated floors made of composites. The aims are weight reduction, durability and thermal and acoustic comfort. Breaking the last barrier In 1996, Marcopolo was already processing some 3,000 tons of plastics a year, but manual processes still predominated. In 2000, the low-pressure RTM process was developed. The process was called “RTM Light”, because of a change in the concept of polyester resin injection that significantly reduced tooling investments. This removed the last barrier. By 1996, the proportion of composites and plastics used in Marcopolo’s bus bodies was 22%, representing approximately 8,000 tonnes per year. This was distributed among the different processes as shown in Figure 1 (comparison between 1996 and 2006). However, the great challenge for moulders such as MVC is to make costs feasible when the materials and technologies are already available for a 100%-composite body. Composites have certainly been crucial for creating bodies with more attractive, lightweight and aerodynamic designs, especially to make the present and future production volumes feasible. Marcopolo’s new plants and developments will allow the company to produce around 20,000 tonnes of composites per year by 2009. Asking the right questions Regarding the growth of the transportation market, in Brazil and worldwide, the first question that comes to mind is which process will be capable of handling the new demand. But perhaps it is time to ask different questions. A veritable alphabet soup of processes, not to mention materials, exists worldwide – SMC, BMC, RTM, RRIM, LMR (DCPD), FFT, FPT, GMT, and countless more – and battles are fought to defend one or another in the composite market every day. Each has some advantage or Fig.1: Comparison of distribution among processes between 1996 and 2006 There are now many components made of composites, such as bumpers, wheels, front and rear body panels, hoods, engine cradles, outer roof skins, and internal components such as No36 October - November 2007 / JEC Composites Magazine

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007

- Trends
FEATURE: TRANSPORTATION
- Measurement
Edito
BUSINESS
- Innovations
- Niche markets
- Companies
- Application
- Successful partners
- Composites in the world
CONTENTS
KNOW-HOW
- Process
USERS’ PLATFORM
- Market
- Market survey
NEWS WORLDWIDE
- Prototyping
- Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - CONTENTS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - NEWS WORLDWIDE
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Innovations
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Market survey
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Trends
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Niche markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - FEATURE: TRANSPORTATION
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - USERS’ PLATFORM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Composites in the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Successful partners
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - KNOW-HOW
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Prototyping
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - - Measurement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #36 - October 2007 - 68
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